C132 Spring 2016 Final Exam Questions
The final exam will include a series of questions chosen from the list below and from the
list of midterm questions. The points for each question are indicated to the left. The
total points on the exam will be 100, wi
Transposons are classified
by whether their movement
is the result of direct
excision and reinsertion of
one DNA element, or must
be copied into a RNA
DNA transposons can jump
during S phase of the cell
cycle from a replicat
Cell Biology of the Nucleus
Professors Berk and Black
The Molecular Structure of Genes and Chromosomes
Where did all of this DNA come from and what
is it doing?
has a distinct
contains about 3
billion base pairs
In cells that contain a
functional IS element encoding
transposase, mutant elements
can also be observed to move.
These have the inverted
repeats needed for
Transposase recognition but
are mutated or deleted for the
The human genome contains about
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Reporter gene construct
-galactosidase reporter gene
-8kb to +25 bp
Reporter gene construct
Movement of IS elements and transposons
can disrupt genes and cause mutations
Disruption of the white gene by a variety
of transposable elements
Genetic Consequences of
Spontaneous gene m
Alternative polyadenylation coupled with alternative splicing can produce mRNAs with
different 3 terminal exons and different protein C-termini.
Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation sites within the same 3 terminal exons
can alter the length of the 3
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HAT histone acetyl transferase
HDAC histone deacetylase
Heterochromatin at the
telomeres of yeast (S.
RAP1 is a TF with a DNAbinding domain that
Each intron in a premRNA is excised by the
same two step pathway
requiring recognition of
the 5 and 3 splice sites.
Each intron must
assemble its own
from snRNPs and
Arrangement of Eukaryotic Genes, Fig. 9-33
Yeast genes ha
In addition to Exonic Splicing Enhancers, there are
also Exonic Splicing Silencers (ESS), Intronic Splicing
Enhancers (ISE), and Intronic Splicing Silencers (ISS).
There are many pre-mRNA binding proteins th
Chromatin decondensation requires two types of protein
complexes each made of several polypeptide subunits:
1. Lysine acetyl transferase complexes.
These are often referred to as HATS for histone
acetylases. or nuclear KATs, for lysine (K) acetyl
Genetic regulatory processes act on RNA as well as DNA.
The protein output of
genes is regulated at
every step in the life
of an mRNA from the
initiation of synthesis
The three major processing reactions that generate a mature
Courtesy of Steve Hahn
Accidental discovery of
the SV40 enhancer.
Transfect plasmid with the
-globin gene into
No -globin RNA
~200 bp that acts as a replication origin.
C RNA isolated from
Cooperative DNA-binding by cAMP-CAP and E. coli RNA polymerase
Auxilliary operators in the E. coli lac operon contribute 70fold to repression in the absence of lactose.
Polynucleotide synthesis in all cells
proceeds in the 53 direction for both
RNA and DN
A human metaphase
chromosome contains 100 to
500 megabases of diploid
Chromatin extracted from nuclei
at physiological salt
concentrations (~0.15M) forms
fibers about 30 nm in diameter.
If this chromatin is exposed to
low salt conditions
Chapter 6: Molecular Structure of Genes and Chromosomes
1. Pages 223-230 (6.1)
a. Gene: nucleic acid sequence required for functional polypeptide or RNAs (snRNA, snoRNA,
miRNA used in processing and translation regulation)
i. Includes coding region and re
Chapter 7 notes
1. Pages 279-288 (7.1)
a. Gene expression: regulation is the fundamental process that controls development and growth
i. Cancer and abnormalities caused by deregulation of gene expression
ii. Bacteria: need regulation to adjust enzymatic m