Mark True (A) or False (B) about the following statements about hypothesis testing.
A good null hypothesis is one that the experimenter believes is highly likely to be rejected by the
outcome of the experiment.
We can use a species fundamental niche
Migratory birds use two different kinds of cues to travel: magnetic and celestial. When
there is no directional information given by the magnetic fields, celestial information will be
used. When the
OBEE 100 Wed 12-2
Assignment 5: Group project one page write up.
The species experimented on will be trifolium repens also known as large clover. This
plant prefers cool and moist climates and dislike hot sunny weather.
Possibilities of secondary cues to magnetic and celestial information used by white crowned
Migratory birds use two different kinds of cues to travel: magnetic and celestial. The
earth naturally gives out a magnetic field a magnetic north an
Reading #10 Species Interactions:
Ecological community organisms that live together in particular area
Community ecology the study of interactions, and how they determine which and how many species live in a place.
Interactions: competition, predator-pret
1. T, T, T, T.
2. T, F, F, F.
3. It allows the study of traits without having to know their genetic basis. It also allows the study of
traits that are unlikely to have any direct genetic basis, like human culture and learned behaviors.
Finally, we can stu
1 . F, T, F, F.
2 . They have have no need for a lock and key mechanism that prevents hybridization because as
the only species, there are no chances to make mating mistakes.
3 . F, F, F, F.
A. Males have to vary in a heritable and observable physical
1. The subordinate loses 2 matings (4 -2) by cooperating. The dominant gains 4 matings
(8 -4) with a subordinate. A full brother has r = 0.5. Thus:
0.5 * 4 - 2 = 0, or the turkey gets equal fitness from both options.
With a half brother:
0.25 * 4 - 2 = -1
1. T, F, F, T.
2. The researcher must also know the relative abundances of the 2 prey species and the
encounter rates for the predator. It may be that Species 2 is the more profitable, but that
it is more rarely encountered. The zero-one rule predicts tha
PRACTICE PROBLEMS: Lectures 1 - 4
1. What are some features or consequences of the Adaptationist Research Program
being applied to the study of animal behavior?
F Mathematical models are important in explaining and predicting behavior.
Which of the following observations support the lock and key hypothesis?
F Female reproductive organs look very similar across many closely-related species.
F Male reproductive organs are species-specific in their appearance.
F Male reproductive
1. Richardson and Verbeek (1986) watched crows foraging on clams buried in tidal sand
flats. They predicted the optimal diet of the crows based on a prey choice model and
T F Larger clams were significantly more likely to be eaten than were sm
1. Turkey males often cooperate as pairs to attract females. When in pairs, the turkeys get
10 matings of which the dominant male gets 8 and the subordinate gets 2. When alone,
each turkey gets 4 matings. Should a turkey accept a subordinate role with a f
Known # of species = 1.5 million
Estimates of the actual number of
species on earth range from 5-100
New species appear, existing
species go extinct
Rapid decline in biodiversity =
5 major extinctions in last 450
The author sited from a series of other sources of literature. He mentioned Fishers
theory of parental investment and sex allocation.
This theory states that, there is equal
investment for each s
Effects of Mobbing Calls on Risk Assessment of Predation
The animal behavior science journal, Do mobbing calls affect the perception of
predation risk by forest birds? deals with proximate explanations. They believed t
EEB 100: Introduction to Ecology and Behavior (2016 Winter)
Dr. Peter Nonacs
TAs: Kenny Chapin
Life Science Building 3125
Office hours: W 11-12; TR 12-1pm
or by appointment
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 6-7
Island biogeography: large islands have more species than small islands
Effects on dispersers- Angles of departure based on island size and distance.
Much more likely to disperse to B than A because it is a bigger island with greater angle
to reach islan
Ideal Free Distribution
Ideal: animals will go where they can find the most food and survive longer
Free: they can move wherever they want to
Fish will swim toward water drop with 5 water fleas instead of the water drop with 1
A tank with 6
Competition: one species would do better if the other species wasnt there
Exploitation: one species gains something positive while the other species suffers
Mutualism: both species gain something positive
Commensalism: one species isnt affected, but the
Warm, moist air starts at the bottom and becomes cooler as it moves up.
As the air cools, you get more rain.
Air becomes dry on the other side of the mountain.
Air is able to hold less moisture.
Eastern Sierra Mountains: a lot less rain and m
Ecology: What is it and why do we care?
Modern definition of Ecology:
The experimental analysis of the
interactions that determine the
distribution and abundance of organisms
Ecology: What is it and w
Where do organisms live?
Tectonic processes (mountain building)
Species not found where potentially they
Where do organisms live?
Populations change in number
Tracking and predicting changes
in numbers = population biology
Population Biology: Demographics
Organisms have a birth rate (b)
Organisms have a death rate
Conservation: Heath Hens
1700s: common throughout New England
1869: only on Marthas Vineyard
1896: < 100 birds (increased effort)
1916: 2000 birds
Large fire, harsh winter = population crash
1923: 23 birds
Species 1 Species 2
Exploitative vs. Interference
Exploitative (Scramble): individuals
may not directly int
Models and lab experiments predict:
Extinction of isolated populations
Coexistence of predators and prey
difficult to maintain locally.
Population Biology: Dispersal
Migration between p
The study of the interactions of
populations of many species
Describe community organization
Measuring Species Diversity
Alpha diversity ( ) = number of species in a community