Muawiya (661-680) succeeded Ali,
and started a dynasty through the old
aristocracy of the Quraysh that would
rule the Arab empire for 90 years.
Rashidun caliphate (632 - 661)
Umayyad caliphate (661 - 750)
Abbasid caliphate (750 - 1258)
In prehistoric and Pagan times two races
One was largely nomadic, wandering
with flocks over the great deserts.
The others were the inhabitants of the
uplands in the south- Yemen.
The Bedouin, (from the Arabic badaw,
Before he died, the prophet had left no
clear instructions as to who was to
Muslims then had a very little political
experience of Pre-Islamic Arabia to guide
The Muslim Umma was in a state of
confusion and despair.
The Meccans saw Muhammads movement
as a threat to the economically profitable
cult of the Kaaba.
Mockery and insults soon turned into
In 619, the year of mourning, his wife
Khadija and his beloved uncle both died.
Their death an
From the 4th to the 12th centuries the original
chemical research and writing was almost
non-existent in Europe.
Instead, Arabic texts came to be translated
into Latin and to function as standard
textbooks for students in Europe.
Among the most important Abbasids
caliphs (heads of both state and faith).
Al-Mansur - the victorious - (754-775)
Al-Mansur was the son of a Berber
Harun ar-Rashid (al-Mansurs grandson)
(Aaron the Just or Rightly Guided)
The Tubl drum beaten at both ends
with flexible sticks especially used in
What did the ARABS give the world?
Military music used to be employed by
the Fatimids (500 drummers and 500
trumpets) aimed to display royal
Arabic Nationalism started in the Mashreq
which means East" (place of sunrise) under the
Arabic Nationalism goes back to around 1820.
Excessive taxation, and oppression was
dominant throughout the long centuries
of Ottomans occ
Classical Arabiyya, the high language,
emerged between 8th and 10th
centuries in Iraq.
It emerged from the influences of a
spoken language, oral literature and
In the fertile crescent, Egypt and
North Africa, Arabic domin
The Syrian Desert and the Arabian
Peninsula became an area of conflict for
these two neighboring major powers of
The Arabic Lakhmid Kingdom
(established around 300) served the
Persian Empire as a buffer state against
Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
Deliverance from Error
The author of some 84 books including
the Revival of the Religious Sciences
&Incoherence of the Philosophers.
The Political, Socio-economic and