Life Science 3:
to Molecular Biology
Introduction to Molecular Biology
of the Cell
I. Overview of the course
II. What are cells and their characteristics?
III. Why should we study model organisms?
IV. Objectives of the course
Lecture 7: DNA Structure
1. What is Mendels Law of Inheritance?
2. How does Mendels First Law of
Inheritance explain the 3:1 phenotype ratio?
3. What did Thomas Morgan discover about
Drosophilia in 1908?
4. What was the purpose of Frederick
1. Helicase and primase form a complex called the primosome.
2. Eukaryotic primers contain both RNA and DNA True
3. Supercoils created from unwinding of DNA are removed by enzymes called
4. Which of the following processes does not require ATP
-Transition (A T or T A or G C or C G)
-Transversion (A or G T or C)
-Addition/ Insertion: addition of one or more nucleotides
-Deletion: deletion of one or more nucleotide
-Results in shorteni
The correct aminoacyl-tRNA is loaded into the A-site of the ribosome.
A peptide bond is formed between the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A-site and the peptide
chain that is attached to the peptidyl-tRNA in the P-site.
The resulting peptidyl-tRNA in
DNA binding motifs
Most bacterial regulators bind as dimers to DNA target sequences that are twofold
rotationally symmetric: each monomer inserts an alpha helix into the major groove of the
DNA over one-half of the site and detects the edges of base pair
Lac repressor acts as a negative regulator (negative control) by turning of transcription
CAP-cAMP complex acts as a positive regulator (positive control) by turning on
Glucose is favored over lactose
Levels of glucose affect levels of cAMP
Nucleotides are composed of a pentose sugar (known as 2-deoxyribose because there
is no hydroxyl at position 2), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.
3 hydroxyl of sugar+5 hydroxyl of phosphate= phosphodiester bonds link together the
Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to a protein. Many enzymes and
receptors are switched "on" or "off" by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Reversible
phosphorylation results in a conformational change in the structure in many enzy
Proteins are linear chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds (polypeptide chains)
Amino acids have amino group (NH2), side chain, lone hydrogen, and carboxyl group
(COOH) all attached to a carbon
Peptide bonds are formed when water is hydrolyzed by
Nucleotide sequence of a translated gene specifies not only the amino acid sequence,
but the 3D structure and function of that protein.
Denaturation is unfolding of a secondary, tert, or quart structure by exposing the protein
to heat or acidic pH (denat
Enzymes lower the energy needed for a
reaction to proceed
G = Gproducts Greactants
(Gibbs free energy)
The rate of the reaction is determined
by height of the energy hill
Enzymes speed up reactions by
lowering the act
Enzymes composed of a complex of RNA
and protein, referred to as snRNPs.
small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles
RNA components uridine-rich and are
referred to as U1, U2, U4/U6 and U5.
Each snRNA is associated with 10 or more
Mechanism proposed by Watson & Crick
Models for DNA replication
How can one d
Some transcription factors are
DNA binding motifs found in
Helix-turn-helix (mostly prokaryotic)
Basic leucine zipper
Basic helix-loop-helix (do not confuse
with Ca binding motif)
Helix turn helix motif
Lecture 6: Regulation of Protein Function
1. Explain what happens when a
cooperative allosteric transition occurs with
two identical subunits in an enzyme.
2. What occurs during proteolytic
3. What does proteolysis generate?
Chapter 5: DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
The Maintenance of DNA Sequences
Rarely do DNA maintenance fails if it occurs, permanent change to DNA
Mutation can destroy an organism if in a vital spot in DNA sequence
Mutation Rates Are Extremely
INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Please circle your TAs name:
1. This exam has 6 pages. Before starting, make sure you have all the pages.
2. Be sure to write cl
Candidate emotions for aversion motivation.
- we need to motivate nepotism and _.
- Bunche. 2 elevators open. One has a murderer. One that defecates on a daily
basis and does not throw up too often. If you are going to choose the second
- sim pua marriage- . Bride price in Taiwan. A couple has a so, and cant afford
high bride price but wants to be connected to a a prominent family, the
couple takes in daughter, but problem is that the kids dont want to have sex.
Childs window: the window in which it learns who its kin is cant be too short and cant
be too long. Suppose it lasts 6 months. What if older brother was away for 6 months. or
what if your mother has a baby a few years later. If its too long, like until 1
Westermarck studied in Moroccan villages, where there was a prescription that a man
marries his fathers brothers daughter. This functions to maintain single land lineage,
without breaking it up. But because of this, brothers shared a household and they g
Snyder also reasoned that the EEA is that both significant violence against women/kids and
- Also, male protection can enhance female fitness
- Ideal guy (formidable and kind) is rare.
- Aaron Sell: tested chest compression strength
Study 1: Vignettes describes P vs D. And have strong preference ofr P over D.
Study 2: Vignettes, P vs D, fraternity leadership, long term vs short term, attractiveness, w and
m undergrads. Women displays strong preference for dominance. Strong preference
Sadalla et al.
Women predicted to be and found to be attracted to dominant men as dominant
indexes genes, resources, or both converse neither predicted nor found. Dominant have
greater access to resources, thus making their partners better. Because domin
Chemistry of Cells Is Dominated by Macromolecules
o Macromolecules most abundant carbon containing molecules in living cells
o Principle building blocks of a cell
o Macromolecules in cells are polymers constructed by covalent bo
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Cell
Cells and Genomes
o Long, unbranched, paired polymer chains
o Double stranded
o A, T, C, G are the four bases that encode genetic information
All Cells Replicate Their Hereditary Information by Templated Polymeriz