2. Where do most new genes come from? How?
Most new genes come from old genes through gene duplication. Gene duplication,
which probably occurs during DNA replication, occurs through error in meiosis. One of
the duplicated genes is able to carryout its or
1. What is the key difference, besides temperature, between primitive Earth conditions and current
Earth conditions, that allowed for the synthesis of organic compounds as demonstrated by the
Miller-Urey experiment? Explain.
An important difference betwee
1. The origin of life requires a sustained energy source and a
containment structure that increases the concentration of solutes.
What energy source is the most likely candidate for the origin of
life? What is the containing structure? Briefly describe ea
1. Why does the central dogma of molecular biology present a major
obstacle to the formulation of a theory of the origin of life?
The central dogma is an extremely complex system of transcribing DNA to
RNA and translating RNA to proteins, which could not
1. Why is there a significant probability that a deleterious allele will be fixed
in the stochastic model for allele evolution? Is this reasonable?
The stochastic model uses random variation to determine the probability of certain
alleles being fixed in a
1. Why is it advantageous to develop an ATP synthase that can utilize (transduce energy from)
a proton gradient if becoming a free-living cell requires generating (by metabolic energy) the
proton gradient that is used? In other words, why did early cells
1. What is the key difference, besides temperature, between primitive Earth conditions and
current Earth conditions, that allowed for the synthesis of organic compounds as
demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment? Explain.
The Miller-Urey experiment is
1. What is the most probable origin of introns? How are they removed? (You may refer to
either hypotheses we talked about this quarter.)
The most probable origin of introns is would be the introns-late hypothesis, which states that
introns came after the
1. If a random nucleotide substitution occurs in one of the codons specifying an amino
acid of a protein, what is the probability that it will be a synonymous substitution?
(Assume the universal genetic code. This requires a calculation.)
To calculate the
2. What does the deterministic model predict for the fixation probability of an alleles
with a positive selection coefficient? Is this prediction realistic? Why?
The deterministic model predicts that the fixation probability of an allele with a positive
1. What features of enzymes make them central to the development of life? Why not other
1. Enzymes are protein catalyst that help maintain the flow of energy in a living
organism. Enzymes are necessary because a living organism has many meta
1. What is the molecular clock concept? Why is this concept more applicable to molecular
data than morphological data?
The molecular clock concept is that if the mutation rate is constant, the number of changes
two lineages share should be proportional to
1. The origin of life requires a sustained energy source and a structure that increases the
concentration of solutes. What energy source (in general) is the most likely candidate for
the origin of life? What is the containing structure (in general)? Why a
01 Introduction Fall 16
Thursday, September 22, 2 016
11:00 A M
Final is cumulative
Midterm is October 20
Change over time and heritability ( genetic change)
Accumulation of advantageous traits
Talks about how