EEB 18 Midterm Sample Questions
1. Explain this class's working definition of "environment."
The area we live in, what surrounds us.
2. Should all humans be concerned about environmental issues? Why/why not
Yes because it affects everyone.
3. Define "ecos
Sample Questions for the Final EEB 18
Be sure to think about how all the themes weve discussed in class tie together. What does all
this mean for the future of life on this planet? What will it be like to be a human in 100
years? These questions do not co
EEB 109, Winter 2009
1) A) Whats the difference between hard corals and soft corals? (3pts)
Hard corals produce a calcium carbonate skeleton, whereas soft corals do not
B) Which would you expect to be more impacted by ocean acidification? Why? (6 pt
01 Introduction Fall 16
Thursday, September 22, 2 016
11:00 A M
Final is cumulative
Midterm is October 20
Change over time and heritability ( genetic change)
Accumulation of advantageous traits
Talks about how
1. What is the key difference, besides temperature, between primitive Earth conditions and current
Earth conditions, that allowed for the synthesis of organic compounds as demonstrated by the
Miller-Urey experiment? Explain.
An important difference betwee
1. The origin of life requires a sustained energy source and a
containment structure that increases the concentration of solutes.
What energy source is the most likely candidate for the origin of
life? What is the containing structure? Briefly describe ea
1. Why does the central dogma of molecular biology present a major
obstacle to the formulation of a theory of the origin of life?
The central dogma is an extremely complex system of transcribing DNA to
RNA and translating RNA to proteins, which could not
1. Why is there a significant probability that a deleterious allele will be fixed
in the stochastic model for allele evolution? Is this reasonable?
The stochastic model uses random variation to determine the probability of certain
alleles being fixed in a
1. Why is it advantageous to develop an ATP synthase that can utilize (transduce energy from)
a proton gradient if becoming a free-living cell requires generating (by metabolic energy) the
proton gradient that is used? In other words, why did early cells
1. What is the key difference, besides temperature, between primitive Earth conditions and
current Earth conditions, that allowed for the synthesis of organic compounds as
demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment? Explain.
The Miller-Urey experiment is
1. What is the most probable origin of introns? How are they removed? (You may refer to
either hypotheses we talked about this quarter.)
The most probable origin of introns is would be the introns-late hypothesis, which states that
introns came after the
1. If a random nucleotide substitution occurs in one of the codons specifying an amino
acid of a protein, what is the probability that it will be a synonymous substitution?
(Assume the universal genetic code. This requires a calculation.)
To calculate the
2. What does the deterministic model predict for the fixation probability of an alleles
with a positive selection coefficient? Is this prediction realistic? Why?
The deterministic model predicts that the fixation probability of an allele with a positive
1. What features of enzymes make them central to the development of life? Why not other
1. Enzymes are protein catalyst that help maintain the flow of energy in a living
organism. Enzymes are necessary because a living organism has many meta
1. What is the molecular clock concept? Why is this concept more applicable to molecular
data than morphological data?
The molecular clock concept is that if the mutation rate is constant, the number of changes
two lineages share should be proportional to
1. The origin of life requires a sustained energy source and a structure that increases the
concentration of solutes. What energy source (in general) is the most likely candidate for
the origin of life? What is the containing structure (in general)? Why a
2. Where do most new genes come from? How?
Most new genes come from old genes through gene duplication. Gene duplication,
which probably occurs during DNA replication, occurs through error in meiosis. One of
the duplicated genes is able to carryout its or
Amensalism- one species have some sort of negative effect
on the other, and the other has a neutral effect on them
ex. walking across the grass on campus
Mark True (A) or False (B) about the following statements about hypothesis testing.
A good null hypothesis is one that the experimenter believes is highly likely to be rejected by the
outcome of the experiment.
We can use a species fundamental niche
darwins dilemma- saw that there were bess that didnt reproduce and were
workers- wouldnt that be eliminated by selective evolution?
- termites, honeybees, ants do this
Excessive niceness- the majority of them dont reproduce and are just
compare self : other or
offspring of self : offspring of other
all parents should like their kids equally, but kids
R0 = basic reproductive rate
= average number of people infected by a single disease source, or # of
secondary infections resulting from a single infection
- duration of infectivity
number of people you come into conta