4th century Greek culture was a time of disillusionment and political upheaval.
More focus on the INDIVIDUAL and the world of REAL appearances.
Roman copy of original. 350 BCE. Marble. 6 8 tall.
2 Major sculptors of the period: Praxiteles and Lysippos.
In 1972 sea divers recovered a pair of larger-than life-size bronze warriors from the sea.
Found in the cargo hold of a shipwreck offshore in Southern Italy.
Theyd been underwater for nearly 2000 years, but intact & in fairly good condition.
By 5500 BCE Nile Valley was agriculturally based. Annual floods deposited rich silt.
3100 BCE dynasties formed (kings)
30 dynasties ruled until Egypt was conquered by the Greeks in 332.
Kings were thought to be divine rulers, sons of the Sun God Ra.
1458 BCE. Built into the limestone cliffs.
*NEW KINGDOM PERIOD:
Dynasty 18 regained control over the Nile region & restored political strength.
Marriages between Egyptian & Near East Royals helped keep the peace.
Thutmose III was the first to use the term
Largest sculpture in the near East.
Sphinx associated with the sun god.
Combines human intelligence w/ strength of beast.
Dignity, calm, permanence.
One of about 20 life-size statues commissioned by King Khafre.
WHY? - Provided a statue of the deceaseds l
Mesopotamia - area between Tigris & Euphrates
Not a unified nation - lived in City-states.
Was a coherent society. Not everyone had to hunt or gather or farm the land
Some could work metals, some could be priests, some could build homes.
Cities designed t
Humanism Concept that man is the measure of all things.
Even gods & goddesses were physically portrayed as perfect human beings.
Rationalism Reason triumphs over emotion
Greeks saw logic & reason in natural processes
A time of great philosophers: Sophocl
310 BCE. Roman mosaic copy of original painting. Mosaic. approx. 9 x 17.
We are looking at a mosaic, but the original picture of this was a painting.
It is possible that this was painted by a female artist.
When discussing Greek painting, we usually talk
Nineveh (Iraq). 2200 BCE. Copper.
*AKKAD: 2300 BCE. The area is under the rule of Sargon of Akkad & descendants.
Akkadians spoke a language similar to Hebrew & Arabic.
Loyalty to the king (not the city-state) is unquestionable and absolute.
The head was o
Citadel of Sargon II. Khorsabad, Iraq. 720-705 BCE. Limestone. 13 10 tall.
Assyria became the dominant power from 900-600 BC.
Power is the main theme in Assyrian relief sculpture,
Wars, killing, and strong bulging muscles.
They were a warring people, & oc
Much of the pedimental sculpture lost/destroyed.
The East pediment is the best preserved - commemorates the birth of Athena.
The central figures are missing (probably Zeus & Athena).
On the sides - groups of goddesses
Reclining male figures on the ends, f
Frieze height 76.
The goddess Athena grabs the air of a winged male monster & forces him to his knees.
Monsters mother rises from the bottom right, and reaches up to Athena
She pleads for her sons life.
On the right, Nike rushes to crown Athena the victor