1.Describe mechanical digestion and where it occurs.
Mechanical digestion starts in the mouth as sustenance is chewed (our teeth chew it into
pieces which are small enough to swallow), and by wavelike contractions of the smooth
muscles in the
1. Living things are organized. Explain what this means including the terms cells,
tissues, biosphere, atoms, and ecosystems (2 pt).
Hierarchy (small to large): atoms cell tissues ecosystems biosphere
We say Living things are organized beca
Identify and compare the two major cardiovascular circuits in the human body. Include the
purpose of each and the organs involved. Do not cut and paste information from the text or
The two major circuits are the pulmonary and systemic.
Identify the function(s) of the lymphatic system. Identify one difference and one similarity
between the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Post your answer in the appropriate topic.
The lymphatic system comprises of a network of lymphatic vessels and
Assumed simple dominant and recessive genetics apply for this discussion. You are looking at
two people, one shows a dominant phenotype (in this example a tall person) and the other a
recessive phenotype (in this example a short person). Is it possible to
The male and female reproductive systems are controlled by hormones and feedback systems.
Identify and discuss one feedback system from either sex and identify the hormones and
The onset of puberty is controlled by two major ho
Identify and discuss the characteristics of life. Do not cut and paste answers.
1. Cellular organization
This suggests that All living things, such as plants, animals, or bacteria, are made of cells. Cells
are the building blocks of life
Define obesity and identify why it is considered to be a health risk.
Obesity is just simply being overweight according to the Center for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) in the USA. But having around 35% of adults and 18% of children still
1. What is the role of the lymphatic vessels?
The main function is to transport the fluid, which is called lymph,
from our tissues back to the cardiovascular system -0.5 toward the
center of our body
2. What are the two categories of lymphat
Water is critical for life. Define and explain hydrogen bonding. List and discuss the properties of
water and explain the role that hydrogen bonding plays in the properties
I, A hydrogen bond occurs when an electronegative atom interacts with a hydrogen a
1. How does a cell illustrate the basic concepts of life? Be specific, and use at least 3
characteristics of life (3 pt). How do these illustrate the characteristics of life? -1.5
A cell is a basic unit of life.
All living things are made up
1. Identify the three basic types of blood vessels and their roles in the
cardiovascular system (CVS).
Arteries: Carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries: Connect Arteries and Veins together. This is where the
exchange of nutrients and
Explain the difference between the first and second line of body defenses against infection by
The first line of defense is referred to as physical and chemical barrier, the bodies natural
barriers. These barriers act as a defense and fight agai
Chapter 1 identified that life is homeostatic. What does this mean and how does the body
achieve homeostasis? Do not cut and paste or just quote/copy from the text explain in your
own words. Post your answer in the appropriate topic.
Homeostasis is the st
Cellular respiration is a vital process. Define cellular respiration, identify the specific steps and
the major energy molecule produced. Post your answers in the appropriate topic.
Cellular respiration is the process of producing ATP. It extracts energy
How do red and white blood cells differ in function? Identify the different types of white blood
cells and their functions. No cutting and pasting. Post your answer in the appropriate topic.
Red blood cells are utilized to transport oxygen, and white bloo
Immune System: Functions
Protects against pathogens
Protects against foreign molecules (e.g., toxins)
Removes dead or damaged cells
Attempts to recognize and remove abnormal
Four Steps in an Immune Response
Respiratory System Functions
Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and
Homeostatic regulation of body pH
Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating
Made in gland(s) or cells
Made in advance and stored (not always)
Transported by blood
Distant target tissue receptors
Exert effects at very low concentrations
Half-life indicates length of activity
Control of rates of enz
1. Name and describe 3 substances utilized in the pharmaceutical industry that affect
transmission at GABAergic synapses.
a. Barbiturates (pentobarbital) increase the duration of the open state of
the GABAAR channel.
b. Benzodiazepines (Valium) increase t
01.10.14 Neurobio Recitation #3 Miledi and Gillepsie papers
Notes by Victoria Cui
Miledi, Transmitter release induced by injection of calcium ions into
F1 = slight postsynaptic depolarization with Ca2+ addition
F2 = current in is negative,
1. Does the membrane time constant of a neuron change during an action potential?
Yes the time constant is dependent on membrane resistance and
capacitance. While the capacitance stays constant, the membrane resistance
changes due to opening/closing
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Intro Bio Columbia Univ.
Important organic chemical FUNCTIONAL GROUPS found in biological molecules (R = any organic group):
sugars :e.g., glucose
- How to measure an RF with diploids
Suppose you want to measure the RF between gene Alpha (alleles A & a) and gene Beta (alleles B and b).
The obvious thing to do is to cross AABB X aabb (parents) AaBb F1 (or cross AAbb X aaBB), and then to