1. Aristotle concluded that living things arise from non-living materialspontaneous
2. Alhazen (965-1040) or Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham, an Iraq physicist. His book Kitabal-Manadhirn was translated into Latin and greatly influenced western s
1. Plasma (cell) membrane- thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and
exits the cell.
2. Cell wall- strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some
bacteria; provides support and protection for a cell.
Cell Cycle Lab
If the cells are looked at under a microscope, then the number of cells in metaphase would
exceed the number of cells in any other phase, making metaphase the longest phase in mitosis.
Table 1: Number of Cells i
Cabbage Juice Titration Lab
Hypothesis: If sodium hydroxide is added to a certain number of drops of hydrochloric acid or
sulfuric acid mixed with two drops of cabbage juice as an indicator, then the number of drops of
sodium hydroxide used to neutralize
PreAP Biology Experimental Design (Lab) Marking Form
Defining the Problem
Focused Problem/Research question.
Introduction specific to hypothesis, supports what
o All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
o The cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms.
o All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Differences between Plant & Animal cells:
o Plant cells have chloroplasts.
o Plant cells
Enzyme- proteins that act as biological catalyst.
Catalyst- a substance that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction.
Substrate- the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Active site- the part of an enzyme that interacts with the subs
Macromolecules are made from thousands or even hundreds or thousands of smaller
Macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization, in which large
compounds are built by joining smaller ones together.
Monomers are the
Introduction to Chemistry
Proton- positively charged particles.
Neutron- neutrally charged particles.
Electron- negatively charged particles.
Ionic Bond- formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Covalent Bond- forms whe
Phosphate group is added to form fructose 6-phosphate then another phosphate group
is added to rmed twice. be able to split into 2 3-carbon molecs. Glycolysis - needs to be
phosphorylation to go through lysis (splits), then NADH (oxidation) is made and 2
Use a ruler to draw and label lines.
Label lines should point to the center of the structure being labeled.
Do not write on the label lines.
All labels should be printed and horizontal.
Label the right-hand side of the drawing, if possible.
Do not cross
Introduction to Chemistry Review
1. How are acids and bases different? How do their pH values differ?
Acids are compounds that form hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution, while bases are
compounds that produce hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution. The pH values of