Hardware for Arithmetic
Todays topics:
Logic for common operations
Designing an ALU
Carry-lookahead adder
input
output
Inverter logic
Pictorial Representations
AND
OR
NOT
23
Pictorial Representations
AND
OR
NOT
What logic function is this?
B
A+ B1 =
B
Lecture 4: Continue on MIPS Instruction Set
More on MIPS instructions
1
Recap Numeric Representations
Decimal
3510 = 3 x 101 + 5 x 100
Binary
001000112 = 1 x 25 + 1 x 21 + 1 x 20
Hexadecimal (compact representation)
0x 23 or 23hex = 2 x 161 + 3 x 160
0
Lecture 5: Procedure Calls
The Stack
The register scratchpad for a procedure seems volatile
it seems to disappear every time we switch procedures
a procedures values are therefore backed up in memory
on a stack
High address
Proc A
Proc As values
call Pr
Lecture 9: Floating Point
Todays topics:
IEEE 754 representations
FP arithmetic
1
Floating Point
Normalized scientific notation: single non-zero digit to the
left of the decimal (binary) point example: 3.5 x 109
1.010001 x 2-5two = (1 + 0 x 2-1 + 1 x
Lecture 1: Computer Organization: Introduction
Todays topics:
Why computer organization is important
Brief History
Syllabus Course Organization
1
Why Computer Organization
To understand the structure, function and characteristics
of computer systems
Lecture 8: Binary Multiplication & Division
Todays topics:
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication and Division
Floating Point Representation
1
Addition and Subtraction
Addition is similar to decimal arithmetic
For subtraction, simply add the negati
Sequential Circuits, Adders
Todays topics:
Clocks, latches, sequential circuits
Carry-look ahead adder
1
Clocks
Comb f(out) = f(in)
Seq f(out) = f(int,state)
A microprocessor is composed of many different circuits
that are operating simultaneously if
Lecture 18: Pipelining
Todays topics:
Hazards and instruction scheduling
Branch prediction
Out-of-order execution
1
Example 5
Show the instruction occupying each stage in each cycle (with bypassing)
if I1 is R1+R2R3 and I2 is R3+R4R5 and I3 is R3+R8R
Basic CPU Design
Todays topics:
Single-cycle CPU
Multi-cycle CPU
Basic MIPS Architecture
Now that we understand clocks and storage of states,
well design a simple CPU that executes:
basic math (add, sub, and, or, slt)
memory access (lw and sw)
bran
Memory Hierarchy
Todays topics:
Cache organization
Cache hits/misses
Cache Hierarchies
Data and instructions are stored on DRAM chips DRAM
is a technology that has high bit density, but relatively poor
latency an access to data in memory can take as m
Lecture 7: MARS, Computer Arithmetic
Todays topics:
MARS System Call
Numerical representations
1
MARS: System Call
2
MARS: System Call: A few Examples
String input
String Print
Int Input
Int print
File read
File write
http:/courses.missouristate.edu/Ke
OOO, Memory Hierarchy
Todays topics:
Out-of-order execution
Cache basics
Slowdowns from Stalls
Perfect pipelining with no hazards an instruction
completes every cycle (total cycles ~ num instructions)
speedup = increase in clock speed = num pipeline
Lecture 2: Metrics to Evaluate Performance
My machine is faster than yours!
100
90
= 1.11
Speedup is a ratio = old exec time / new exec time
Improvement, Increase, Decrease usually refer to
percentage relative to the baseline
= (new perf old perf) / old
Cache Hierarchies, Memory
Todays topics:
Cache hierarchies
DRAM main memory
Virtual memory
Cache Misses
On a write miss, you may either choose to bring the block
into the cache (write-allocate) or not (write-no-allocate)
On a read miss, you always b
Basic Pipelining
Todays topics:
1-stage design
5-stage design
5-stage pipeline
Hazards
1
Birds Eye View
2
Source: H&P textbook
Latches and Clocks in a Single-Cycle Design
PC
Instr
Mem
Reg
File
ALU
Addr
Data
Memory
The entire instruction executes in
Branches, OOO
Todays topics:
Instruction scheduling
Branch prediction
Out-of-order execution
Example 4: with and without bypassing
A 7 or 9 stage pipeline
IF
lw
add
IF
Dec
$1, 8($2)
$4, $1, $3
Dec
RR
ALU
RW
ALU
DM
DM
RW
Example 4
Without bypassing: 4
Lecture 3: MIPS Instruction Set
Todays topic: instruction set architecture (ISA)
Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages
Not to be confused with Millions of instructions per second!
Reduced instruction set computer (RISC)
Acorn RISC Machine A
Basic electronics circuits
Dr. E. Paul Braineard
IIIT Chittoor, AP
2
Syllabus
Semiconductor devices, diode and BJT
Operational amplifier
Filters
Waveform generators
ADC and DAC
3
Syllabus
Semiconductor diode and rectifier: Diode characteristics, half-wav
Operational Amplifier
Dr. E. Paul Braineard
Unit 2
Op-Amp (operational amplifier): Amplifier
parameters, controlled source models,
classification, the operational amplifier (OP-AMP)
as a linear active device, the VCVS model of an
op-amp, different amplif
Basic electronics circuits
Dr. E. Paul Braineard
IIIT Chittoor, AP
2
Syllabus
Semiconductor devices, diode and BJT
Operational amplifier
Filters
Waveform generators
ADC and DAC
3
Syllabus
Semiconductor diode and rectifier: Diode characteristics, half-wav
Operational Amplifier
Dr. E. Paul Braineard
Unit 2
Op-Amp (operational amplifier): Amplifier
parameters, controlled source models,
classification, the operational amplifier (OP-AMP)
as a linear active device, the VCVS model of an
op-amp, different amplif
Experiment 1
Basic Electronics Circuits
Familiarization of Basic Test Equipments and Passive Devices
The first lab session of this course is devoted to
(i) Getting conversant with the features and usages of the test equipment to be
used for conducting exp
Experiment 4
Basic Electronics Circuits, IIIT Chittoor.
Design of operational amplifier configurations
The objectives of the experiments are to design (finding appropriate values for resistors and
voltages)
1. An inverting amplifier with a gain of 10
2. A
Experiment 6
Basic Electronics Circuits, IIIT Chittoor.
Design of waveform generators using operational amplifier
Aim: To design sinusoidal, triangular and square waveform generators using op-amps for
different frequencies and amplitudes and compare the e
Experiment no. 2
Basic electronics circuits lab, IIIT Chittoor
Characteristics and applications of PN junction diode
Part A. Forward & Reverse Bias characteristics of PN junction Diode
In this section the characteristics of PN junction Diode under forward
Filters
Dr. E. Paul Braineard
IIIT Chittoor
Electric filters
Filter: Which allows/pass the input signals to the
output in desired range of frequencies
Passive filters (R, L, C)
Input signal is not amplified
Active filters (transistors, op-amps)
Input
BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
Experiment 12
D-C Power Supply
In this experiment, we will assemble and study the performance of a d-c power supply,
which consists of a power transformer with a centre-tapped secondary, two rectifier
diodes (1N4007), a shunt cap
Experiment 3
Basic Electronic Circuits
IIIT Chittoor
Characteristics of BJT transistor in common emitter
configuration
The basic circuit diagram for studying characteristics of BJT is shown in the Fig. 3.1.
The input voltage is applied between base and em
BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
IR Transmitter for Remote Control using 555
Experiment 11
Infra-red (IR) links are used in many applications, the most common being the hand-held remote
control for TV receivers. The IR transmitter is simply a light-emitting diod