Respiration= obtaining O2 and releasing CO2; aerobic break down of food molecules to
Releasing ATP= main function of cellular respiration.
Equation for cellular respiration:
6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2+ 6H20 +36ATP
Starting to have amniotic sac:
membranes function in gas exchange,
waste storage, and transport of stored
nutrients to the embryo.
Include lizards, snakes, turtles,
crocodiles, and alligators.
They have water proof skin to prevent
Chordata (2 invertebrate subphyla and ALL vertebrates):
Have 4 main features:
1) Notochord (flexible rod on dorsal side later becomes the backbone in many animals)
2) Dorsal hollow nerve cord (becomes the brain and spinal cord)
3) Gill/pharyngeal slit (
Cnidaria (jellies, hydra, sea anemones, and corals):
2 body forms:
2) Sessile polyp
Have a basic body plan called
gastrovascular cavity: a sac
with central digestive
There is a single opening for
both the mouth/anus.
Germ layers: eventually form the organs and tissue of the body.
Ectoderm: outermost layer that gives rise to the skin primarily.
Mesoderm: middle layer that forms muscle and the remaining organs.
Endoderm: innermost layer that gives rise to the digesti
Animals: multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes, obtain nutrients by ingestion, and lack
Ingestion: eating other organisms or organic material.
Collagen: most abundant protein in animals.
Anima cell tissues hav
Hydrogen ions eventually want to come back across the inner membrane but can do so
only by passing via a specialprotein channel called ATP synthase
ADP +Pi are sitting on the other side of ATP synthase
Flow of protons via these channels yields even more A
With one turn of the cycle, molecules are produced:
a. 1 ATP
b. 3 NADH molecules
c. 1 FADH2 (coenzyme similar to NADH)
d. 2 CO2
DOUBLE the products to figure out the total # of products/molecule of glucose
For a sum total of 12 hydrogen carriers altoget
Splitting/ lysis of glucose glycol
Usually consists of 10 steps to break down glucose to pyruvate, each one catalyzed by an
Glucose= 6 carbon sugar that gets broken down into 2 pyruvates/pyruvic acids (3-carbon
2 ATPs are ne
In 1974, researchers found another Australopithecus afarensis fossil that was 40%
complete and named it Lucy. It was only
about one meter tall with the head size of a softball. Lucys bones differed enough to be
considered another species. Humans walked u