CHAPTER 16 - Earthquakes
1. The time interval between the first arrival of P-waves and the first arrival of S-waves _ with distance
from the focus of an earthquake.
2. _ can occur when water-saturated soil turns from a solid to a liquid as a res
1. _ are sedimentary rocks deposited by direct precipitation of minerals from water.
2. _ is a hard, compact, very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed entirely of silica.
3. Peat is a brown lightweight unconsolidated depo
1.3 What Is Inside Earth?
Sketch some of the major layers of Earth. crust,
upper mantle, mantle, outer core, inner core
Lithosphere is strong, asthenosphere can flow- not
Oceanic Crust is thinner and more dense rock
Continental Crust is thicker
Exam 2 Study Guide
Mountain characterized by steep slopes developed on bedrock.
Streams & Rivers typically in mountains with steep gradients and confined by bedrock canyons
Dry Climates wind moves sand grains and fine particles
1. We depend on geologists for the raw materials we need for survival.
2. A tsunami has a small wave height, travels rapidly, and is not noticed by people in boats.
3. While the reserves of petroleum hydrocarbons within the United Stat
17:11 Units & elements, minerals and rocks Distance: kilometer, .6 mi Density: g/cm3, mass per volume Order of magnitude, 10x magnification with each step Pressure: kilobar or kb = air pressure @ sea level; 1 kb occurs at ~3.5 km depth Temperature, `c, 0'
February 12th Tectonics II: The Model A) Definitions - Tectonics: Large scale movement and deformation of the crust - Plate tectonics: A theory, a bunch of tectonics - Upper rigid plate: lithosphere. It may warp on a large scale, or crumple at the ed
January 31st Geodynamo Earths magnetic field Outer Core liquid Inner core solid Scientific Thinking Inductive and Deductive Thinking Speculation, hypothesis, theory, law Multiple working hypothesis and Ockhams Razor What is and is not science Scie
March 4th Igneous Textures 6) Vesicles: trapped gas bubbles. `vesicular texture' 7) Amygdules: vesicles filled in with minerals- origin of agate. `amygdaloidal texture' 2) Kinds Of Igneous Rocks Aphanitic Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Volcanic/Extrusive P
Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting, and the Rock Cycle- Erosion and mass wasting are processes that loosen and transport soil and rock downhill or downwind. - Erosion generally refers to processes that remove weathered Earth materials on a
February 26th C. Silicate Minerals 1. Need abundant elements/opposite charges. a. Si+4 and O+2 b. All silicate minerals contain the Si-O tetrahedron (4 sides) c. Only Si and O d. Tightest packing of O atoms around a Si atom e. -4 charge on tetrahedro
February 21st 2) Plate Tectonics A. Reasons 1. Push (at ridge) 2. Pull (beneath trench, all subduct) 3. Sliding (downhill from M.O.R. to trench, gravity) 4. Piggyback (convection cell) B. Continents 1. 200 Ma a. All land = Pangaea b. All water = Pant
January 29th 1) Model of formation of the solar system - Steps (Sun): - Cloud is unstable, collapses due to gravity - Rotation initiated - Faster rotation with more collapse - Some matter `thrown' outward - `Central condensation' with disk after ~ 10
January 24th Geologically Fast Processes (100 years or less) - Volcanic Eruptions - Earthquakes, faults (Discontinuity or breaks in Earth`s crust) - Landslides, avalanches - Tsunamis (Tidal waves`) -Meteorite Impacts - Floods, Mudflows What is geolog
January 22nd The Earth is 4.5 billion years old. Distance- Kilometers = 0.6 miles Density- g/cm3, water = 1, average rock = 3 Temperature- *C, 0*C freezing point, 100*C boiling point Pressure- Kilobar/kb. 1 bar = air pressure at sea level; 1 kb occur
February 19th Stick Slip= The fault remains stuck for centuries before it ruptures and moves at once. Creep Fault= This fault slowly moves. Items built on it will eventually offset. * Examples: University of Santa Barbara, many streets in California.
February 7th Tectonics 1: Evidence A) Matching coastlines B) Similarities of particular features between continents C) Linear mountain belts D) Paleomagnetism Matching Coastlines - As soon as first crude maps were available, Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1
February 5th Science is in the news. How can one tell if it is `real' science? - Is the person claiming it an authority? - What do other scientists say? (Immediate feedback) - Does the idea run contrary to all established notions? - Does the idea vio
February 28th - 3000 to 5000 B.C.: Ancient Egypt- findings of gemstones as ornaments. - Greek and Roman times: personal adornment, traded and valued as much as today. - Romans wore them as charms, endowed them with magical powers. - Astrology played