Chapter 1 Solutions
Radiation Sources
Problem 1.1. Radiation Energy Spectra: Line vs. Continuous
Line (or discrete energy): a, c, d, e, f, and i.
Continuous energy: b, g, and h.
Problem 1.2. Conversion electron energies compared.
Since the electrons in

Interaction of Beta and Charged
Particles with Matter
betas, protons, alphas and other heavy
charged particles as 16O, gamma and x-rays,
and neutrons
to understand the physical basis for
radiation dosimetry/radiation shielding, one
must be able to compr

Introduction
An electron is surrounded by its Coulomb electric field that interacts with orbital
electrons and the nucleus of all atoms it encounters, as it penetrates into matter. Electron
interactions with orbital electrons of the absorber result in col

Compton Scattering
There are three related processes
Thomson scattering (classical)
Photon-electron
Compton scattering (QED)
Photon-electron
Rayleigh scattering (coherent)
Photon-atom
Thomson and Rayleigh scattering are
elastic-only the direction of

1. Introduction
Electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves that propagate with their
electric and magnetic field vectors perpendicular to each other and to the direction of
propagation. An electromagnetic wave is characterized by its wave

1. Introduction
Heavy charged particles; including all particles with mass equal to or heavier than one
atomic mass unit (amu) such as alpha particles, protons and fission products. The interaction of
heavy charged particles with matter has many different