Agrarian societies Trading societies
Marketing process began with large
need to find buyers for surplus stock
need for mass distribution systems to distribute goods
need to find new products to use expand
Choose your target market
Who are you trying to reach (be specific as possible)
Establish your competitive position
How do you want to be perceived in the market place
(based on quality, service, etc)
Develop a marketing plan (4 Ps)
1. Emphasis is on the product.
1. Emphasis is on the
2. Company first makes the
product and then figures
out how to sell it.
2. Company first determines
what the customers want,
and then figures out how to
make and deliver a product
1. The systems concept applied to information handling to
a. Determine what data you need for decision making.
b. Generate (gather) this information to build a database.
c. Process the data (with the aid of quantitative analytical
Manufacturing and distribution efficiency
Innovation, quality, performance
Promotion, hard sell
Customers needs at a profit to firm
Customers needs at a profit plus human
long term welfare