Early physiology: -Experimental physiology started in the 1830s. - Johannas Muller: he started physiology as a science. He said each sensory nerve has characteristic response when stimulated. - his famous quote: no one can be a psychologist unless he beco
Watson and Emotions:
Watson said that humans inherit a capacity for th ree emotions:- fear, r age, and love; he said they cant be broken down anymore.
He says these in infants: fear was elicited by loud noises and loss of support, rage was elicited by res
Other learning principles Skinner had:
Shaping=> reinforcing successive approximations as desired response.
-Used to increase frequency of new behaviors -Examples:- rat in skinner box, roommate behavior.
Discrimination=> responding differently to diffe
Behaviorism: The third wave:Phase 1: behaviorism- key player: Watson Phase 2: Neo-behaviorism- key player: Hull, Tolman, an Skinner Phase 3: Socio-behaviorism- key players: Bandura, Rotter Socio-behaviorism: - the focus is on social and cognitive factors
Gestalt psychology: A different kind of German psychology
Rallying against Wundtanian psychology Formal beginning in 1912 Perception of movement-> article-> they published a paper that marked the start of Gestalt
Behaviorism started in 1914-> thru tod
Gestalt explanations of learning: They focused on problem solving They said problem solving involves:Perceptual scan:- the organism scans the environment to see the tools that are present Cognitive work toward solution- based on what is learned from the s
Freud and Psychoanalysis: - His biography
The Love doctor father of modern psychology 1938- He was 81 years old: only recording he ever made of himself.
His father was a Jewish merchant; his mom called him Golden Siggy: - only one with his own room in t
Psychoanalysis=> 1895 Freud and Boyer published studies on Hysteria; 1895-present date Psychoanalytic psychology:
Central Tenets=> role of the unconscious; plays a significant role in personality. Unconscious originates in early experience Unconscious is
Intra-psychic conflict and defenses:-
What happens when id, ego, and super ego do not peacefully coexist?
You get an intra-psychic (psychological conflict) =>this shapes ones personality. Ego acts as a mediator between id and sup
Psychotherapeutic approach:Psychoanalysis=> its a method of psycho therapy; rare today.
Its about free association- the aim is to get an understanding of the problem at early development.
Lying on a Freud couch- Freud sits behind the person on the cou
Freudian dissenters- psychoanalytic social perspective: -
Agreed with Freud about: Unconscious that is motivational, prompts us to certain feelings and behaviors. Childhood experiences- said its very important Independent from Freud:Psychoanalytic emphasi
Discovery of Conditioned Reflex:
Discovery of secretions before food is given Pavlov came up with psychic ( conditioned) reflexes Conditioned stimuli:-responses brought on by stimuli other than which initially bought reflex/response.
Thorndikes contributions:He worked on other areas: mental measurements He looked at quality life in different American cities. He worked on education/ what should be taught in schools Practical knowledge is more important than anything else Word usage/. H
H e r man Van Helmholtz
Greatest of the 19th century: he was a student of Muller. Physics was his passion since he was a small boy He made contributions in physics, physiology, and psychology.
Biggest Contributions to psychology:
The Trichromatic theo
The Founding of psychology:The first experimental (scientific) psychology research laboratory was established in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany by Wilhelm Wunt. His goal:- to find a new science: he wrote a book principle of physiological science.
Wilhelm Wunt (
More new psychology in Germany: Herman Ebbinghaus (1850-1909):-
He was from Bonn, Germany. he served in the military; son of a merchant; attended University of Bonn Served in the Prussian army 1870-1871; received his PHD in 1873; and he graduated with the
Edward Titchener (1876-1927):-
He was the founder of structuralism Born into a family with impressive lineage-British His father died when Titchener was a child; he left the family poor He won scholarships to school; graduated from Oxford, then went to st
Charles Darwin 1809-1882:Darwins influence on psychology:-
Charles Darwin=> influential before and during new psychology movement in Germany and the U.S.
Origin of Species (1859) predates Fechner and Wundt. His work was a precursor to functionalism-> de
Forerunners of functionalism:Francis Galton (1822-1911):-
Wealthy British family Notable grandfather=> Darwins cousin 2 and half years old he could read and write; he could read shake spear at 5 years old.
He was trained as a physician, then in mathemat
First blush of Functionalism:Zeitgeist in America:
End of the 19th century ( 1800s), focus is on: Individual, independence Practical, useful U.S is ripe for functional psychology-> study of living people as they adapt to their environment.,
First blush of functionalism:The self:William James said therere two parts of the self=>
1) I=> the knower: the active self 2) Me=> the known: knowledge and beliefs about ones self.
For example:- the computer processor would be the I and the hard drive on
Functionalism:University of Chicago:John Dewey (1859-1952):
He was born in Vermont; his father was a grocer. His initial interest was philosophy; he taught secondary school: received his PhD in philosophy
He taught at University of Michigan and Universit
T he outgrowth of functionalism: Applied psychology: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924):
He was born in Massachusetts; his father was educated farmer; his mother was religious school teacher
He finished seminary (religious) school but he was devout evol
Beginnings of clinical psychology in America: Historical treatment of mentally ill Early view- mental ill is possessed by evil spirits- treatment was torture, execution. Starting 18th century: mental illness was seen as irrational behavior, physical cause
Karen Horney (1885-1952):
German- born in Germany Felt unloved as a child- dad made her feel worthless M.D in 1913 ( University of Berlin) Emotional crisis as adult- married and has three daughters-> unhappiness- sexual difficulties- lost, stomach pains-