The invention of private property
From the cultivation of land, there necessarily
followed the division of land; and from property
once recognized, the first rules of justice. For in
order to render everyone what is his, it is
necessary that everyone can
Civilization and Its Effect on Human
since the bonds of servitude are formed
merely from the mutual dependence of
men and the reciprocal needs that unite
them, it is impossible to enslave a man
without having first put him in the position
What are humans naturally like?
Hobbes: They always want more than they
have, and more than others have, and so
they are always unhappy. They are
constantly afraid of losing what they have,
and so are always trying to figure out how to
What sort of inequality is Rousseau
I conceive of two kinds of inequality in the human species:
one which I call natural or physical, because it is
established by nature and consists in the difference of
age, health, bodily strength, and qu
what kind of freedom is it which is
required for moral responsibility?
How can we answer this question?
Campbell: by means of the critical
comparison of those acts for which, on
due reflection, we deem it proper to
attribute moral praise or blame to the
Why punish wrongdoers?
To rehabilitate them?
To prevent them from doing wrong again?
To deter others from doing wrong?
To exact retribution?
Under what conditions may we
exact retribution for an action?
The action must have been done voluntarily.
Russell sets out to answer two questions:
(1) What is there that we cannot reasonably
(2) What gives us the ideas that we receive
by means of the senses?
First question: what is there that
we cannot reasonably doubt?
It has appeare
Hylas. I acknowledge, Philonous, that, upon a fair
observation of what passes in my mind, I can discover
nothing else but that I am a thinking being, affected with
variety of sensations; neither is it possible to conceive
how a sensati
If a tree falls and no one hears it,
does it make a sound?
Hylas: You must distinguish, Philonous, between sound
as it is perceived by us, and as it is in itself; or (which is
the same thing) between the sound we immediately
perceive, and that which exist
Descartes on sensation
(1) I receive sensory ideas.
(2) I do not receive sensory ideas from myself.
-(3) Therefore, I receive sensory ideas from something other than me.
(4) I am inclined to believe that I receive sensory ideas from material
If God is perfect, then why does
God allow me to make errors?
Intellect, understanding: ones ability to have ideas
When I make an error, I will or affirm an idea.
The error occurs not because of my idea, but because I will
or affirm it. And to will or aff
What makes the arguments of
Meditation Two valid?
There is an idea that represents me.
Therefore, something that has that idea (I) exists.
There is an idea that represents me thinking.
Therefore, something that has that idea (I) is thinking.
There is an i
What makes an argument valid? (I)
All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
All organic molecules contain carbon.
This Triglyceride is an organic molecule.
Therefore, this Triglyceride contains carbon.
All borogroves are mimsy.
Summary of Meditation Two
What Descartes has established so far:
(1) I exist
(2) I am a thinking thing
(3) I am a thing that thinks in various ways
(doubts, understands, affirms, denies,
wills, imagines, senses, etc.)
(4) We can come to know the identity
Descartes project: to establish
something firm and lasting
once in my life I had to raze everything to the
ground and begin again from the original
foundations, if I wanted to establish anything firm
and lasting in the sciences. (Meditations 17)
Whats the difference between
knowledge and true opinion?
For true opinions, as long as they remain, are a
fine thing and all they do is good, but they are
not willing to remain long, and they escape from
a mans mind, so that they are not worth much
Virtue involves knowledge
(1) Virtue must be good for its possessor.
(2) If a thing must be good for its possessor, then that
thing cannot be used wrongly.
(3) If a thing cannot be used wrongly, then you cannot
have that thing unless you know how to use i
The topic of Platos Meno
Virtue (arete) is the excellent state of the
Meno wants to know: can people be taught
to be virtuous?
Socrates replies: we cant find out whether
virtue can be taught unless we first know
what virtue is.
What is ?
In Latin, t
What Ivan Ilyich values
What Socrates values
Socrates says that hes not afraid to die because he
doesnt know whether death is a good thing or a bad
thing. Hes committed to justice whet
What Ivan Ilyich values
What Socrates values
(1) Courage: wherever a man has taken a
position that he believes to be best, or
has been placed by his commander,
there he must I think remain and face
danger, without a thou
A thought experiment is a procedure for testing a
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Consider the philosophical hypothesis:
Having freedom = being able to do whatever you want to
do whenever you want