Safety and Effectiveness
When evaluating an exercise, movement or activity, it is important to
consider its safety and effectiveness. Ask yourself the following questions:
What is the purpose of this exercise? Is it to stretch, ton
In addition to ensuring the body is ready for an exercise or activity, it is
important to ensure that you are using the proper equipment.
Listen to the following audio link to learn more:
Question 1: Choose your favorite sport. What types
Push ups are good exercises, which promote stronger pectorals and core. Before
exercises are performed, they must be evaluated for safety and effectiveness. To help evaluate
the safety and effectiveness of an exercise, there are 5 key factors to be consid
Types of Muscles
Fig. 4.1 - Illustration showing the main muscles of the human body.
Muscles are the engine that enables us to move. They do the same thing
as car engines, albeit in a different way: they turn energy into motion. It
would be impossible to
Muscle and Nerve Interactions
Each muscle is linked to the central nervous system by nerves. The nerve
supplying a muscle is called a motor neuron. Motor neurons originate in
the spinal cord. As the motor neuron approaches its target muscle, i
Muscle work is classified according to the type of contraction. There are
three basic type of muscle contraction: concentric, eccentric and static. The
following diagram shows each type of contraction:
When a muscle contracts, develops
When Exercise Cramps Your Style
Watch the following video to hear Dr. Roberta Anding talk about the
experience of leg cramps and how to prevent and treat them.
Question 1: What are three things that can cause muscle cramps?
Question 2: What should yo
Fast and Slow Twitch Fibers
Categorizing Muscle Fibers
Even though individual muscle cells look very similar, they differ in two
important ways: the speed at which they contract and their preferred
method of generating energy
The speed of contraction depe
Key Terms - Unit 3
To take away from the midline of the body.
To bring towards or cross the midline of the
Bones of the limbs and limb girdles.
Protective layer of cart
Fig. 3.7 - The standars anatomical position - note palms face forwards.
In order to perform exercises in a safe and effective manner, it is important
to understand what movements a given joint is capable of performing. Joint
Types of Joints
A joint or articulation is the point where a bone meets a bone. A joint is
held together by ligaments. As well as binding bone to bone, ligaments
provide the joint with stability. It is important to understand joint structure
and the facto
As we learned in the previous lesson, synovial joints account for most of
the joints that move during exercise. Synovial joints can be classified as
one of six types, according to the movement or movements that are
possible. In this lesson
Synovial joints can be classified as one of six types, according to the movement or
movements that are possible. The six types are: gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball
and socket. These synovial joints mimic objects we use in everyday life.
Bone is a living tissue that is formed by a process called ossification,
which is illustrated in the diagram below. Ossification begins as early as the
second month of development in the womb. It happens when calcium and
The framework of bones, joints, and cartilage of the human body is called
the skeletal system. The skeletal system provides a base framework to
which all the other tissues and organs attach. The human skeleton has two
features that distinguis
There are so many bones in the body, each with their own characteristics,
that it is difficult to categorize them all. For simplicity, bones are classified
as being one of four shapes: long, short, flat and irregular. First, to
Flexibility is a measure of the maximum range of movement (ROM) possible around a joint or
joints. It is specific to a particular joint or set of joints. For example, a football player may have
much better flexibility in the shoulder joint ver
A bone marrow transplant can save the lives of patients with serious
conditions such as certain blood cancers or other life-threatening diseases.
Many of these patients will die unless they get a bone marrow or cord blood
transplant from a mat
Muscular fitness is of fundamental importance for independence in everyday life. It helps
determine an individual's mobility, performance at work and ability to enjoy leisure activities.
Muscular strength is defined as the maximum amount
Unit 2 - Components of Fitness: Summary
In this unit you will learn about the various components of physical fitness. Firstly, we will
define fitness and discuss the factors that affect it. We will then look at each type of fitness and
the federal guideli
Fig. 2.2 - A boy plays Whack-a-Mole at a fairground. A good example of an activity that demonstrates motor fitness.
Motor fitness refers to the skill-related aspects of fitness that can be broken down into
the sub-categories of agility, bala
Cardiovascular fitness is often referred to as stamina, endurance, cardio-respiratory (heart and
lungs) fitness or aerobic fitness. Simply defined, it is your body's ability to take in, transport and
Benefits of Each Type of Fitness
Each type of fitness offers important benefits. This lesson will discuss the different
benefits that can be gained from cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, flexibility,
and motor fitness.
Kick-Starting a Healthier Lifestyle
Later in the course, we will explore some strategies for becoming more active in the context of
exercise psychology. To round off this unit, we will look at simple things everyone can do to
kick-start a healthier lifest
Factors Affecting Fitness
Total fitness is a multi-dimensional concept that includes aspects such as emotional, social,
spiritual, mental, nutritional and physical fitness. A fit person has the ability to thrive in each
aspect within the demands of modern
Sports and Recreation for Persons with Disabilities
Physical disabilities do not have to prevent people from playing sports. Watch the first three
sports and recreation videos from the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation: Golf, Tennis, and
It is important to consume enough food to sustain the body's functions and energy
levels, but not enough to lead to weight gain and health risks. The number of calories needed
each day varies by the individual, according to gender, how old they are, and h
It can be hard to eat healthy when you have a very busy schedule,
particularly when you're choosing snacks. Read this article from
TeensHealth to learn about healthy snack choices.
Question 1: Why are teenagers likely to be hungry more
Key Terms - Unit 8
Phase 4 of the Stage of Change model: individuals
who are ready to put their plan in action.
Subjective feeling of apprehension and heighted
stated of physiological tension.
Reasons why someone
When someone makes a decision to change something about their life, like giving up
smoking, starting to exercise, or eating more healthily, they are making a commitment. In order
to deliver on that commitment, there are lots of things they have do to (or