The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses
Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses:
_Skin and mucosaes_
Surface barriers include the _skin_ and _mucous membranes_ of the
respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitour
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation
a. Short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what
2. vessel diameter
3. heart rate
b. Long term mechanisms will regulate _Blood volume_.
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance: Acid-Base Homeostasis
1. List the three important buffer systems in the body:
a. Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
b. Phosphate buffer system
c. Protein Buffers
2. Write the equation showing the relationship
Endocrine System: Biochemistry, Secretion and Transport of Hormones
Place the following hormones into one of the three categories of hormones
(peptides, amines or steroids): T4 (thyroxin), estradiol, norepinephrine, insulin,
aldosterone, glucagon, cort
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Cycle
Valves open in response to _difference in blood pressure_ on their two sides.
List the chambers/vessels that the four valves connect:
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Action Potential
How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells?
_Via gap junctions_.
Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular musc
pH and Acid/Base Balance
Activity 1 pH of Common Liquids
Watch the 13-minute Youtube video called pH of Common Substances:
Use the information from the video to fill out the table below.
The Respiratory System: Control of Respiration
Where in the medulla are the neurons that set the basic respiratory rhythm?
What modifies this medullary center?
What is the most importan
The Cardiovascular System: Factors That Affect Blood Pressure
What are the three main factors that influence total peripheral resistance (TPR)?
a. Blood viscocity
b. vascular resistance
Name three hormones that act as vasoconstrictors.
1. What is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period? _1.0-1.8 liters _
2. Assuming normal conditions, note whether each of the following substances would be (a) in greater
relative concentration in the urine than in the
The Cardiovascular System: Intrinsic Conduction System
The intrinsic conduction system consists of _impulses _ _autorhythmic_ cells that initiate
and distribute _action potentials _ throughout the heart.
The intrinsic conduction system coordinates h
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Output
Define Cardiac Output (CO).
the volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart.
Write the equation for CO
CO=HR x SV
Define Stroke Volume (SV).
the amount o blood pumped from a ventricle
Anatomy of the Urinary System EXERCISE
LAB TIME/DATE _3/29/15_
1. Complete the following statements.
The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes _1_ wastes. It is also a major
homeostatic organ because it maintains the elect