UNIT 1 - EVOLUTION
collective change in traits of organisms through time
requires isolation, natural selection, mutations, and random events
is NOT PURPOSEFUL
doesnt produce perfect organisms
microevolution - change over a short time in a p
UNIT 5 - DNA AND GENETICS
Organization of DNA
DNA wraps around groups of 8 histones (proteins) to form n ucleosomes
a string of nucleosomes is called chromatin
heterochromatin is tightly packed and inactive
euchromatin is loosely packed and active
UNIT 2 - BIOCHEMISTRY
usually C : 2H : O
monosaccharides - glucose and fructose
polysaccharides - starch and cellulose
used for energy storage and structure (in plants)
C, H, and O
fatty acids - carbon chains with h
UNIT 3 - CELL ENERGETICS
sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
metabolic pathway - series of chemical reactions that either build or break down a complex
catabolism - metabolic pathways that break down complex biomolecules in
UNIT 4 - PLANTS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
palisade mesophyll - performs most photosynthesis
upper epidermis - boundary between plants and outside that retains water and regulates
guard cells - open and close the stomata in response t
what you should observe in the empirical world derived from a theoretical
argument). These are as follows: 1. Democracy is more common in rich countries
than in poor countries. 2. Transitions to dictatorship become less likely as wealth
increases. While t
and remain democratic explain why your adopted country either became a
democracy, or remained only partially democratic, or has switched between
democracy and authoritarian government.
172 Introduction to political science
2.8 Sample examination questi
they reform the system they may lose some privileges, but at least they will not be
fatally undermined through revolution. The final factor is the cost of repression
that the political elites experience in order to maintain a non-democracy. Based on
of preference formation. Attempting to capture how preferences formed in a postindustrial society, Kitschelt (1994) made a distinction between individuals who had
people processing jobs and individuals who had data processing jobs. He argued
that people f
Voter A will reflect on the position of Party X and Party Y. After calculating that
Party X is closer to their ideal point, this will be voter As preferred party. High
Intensity of Preference
Party Y Party Y Voter A Voter B
Figure 3.3: Spatial theory
outcomes discuss the difference between theoretical explanations which focus
on the rational behaviour of political actors and explanations which focus on the
role of institutions and society discuss the difference between qualitative and
the present day. Based on this graph we can say that it is a mistake to assume
democracy was the dominant form of political organisation prior to this very
recent history. Rather, for most of modern political history the world was governed
by other forms
Mushtaq Ahmad Government and Politics in Pakistan, Space Publishers, 1970.
Nitishtay Ahmad Government and Politics in Pakistan, Pakistan Publishing
Nelson B. andiN. Chowdhary
Women and Politics Worldwide, Delhi, Oxford
University Press, 1997.
George Sorenson and Robert Jackson Introduction to International Relations,
Oxford University Press, 1999.
The Control of the Amis Race, New York, Praeger, 1961. Morgenthau
Politics Among Nations, 6th edn., revised by K.W. Thomson, New Delhi
3.7 Conclusion Voting behaviour has changed markedly since the 1960s. Voters no
longer vote on the basis of strong party attachments related to social cleavages,
but rather voters now tend to vote on the basis of judgments made on certain
issues of salien
Structural-Functional Analysis & System Analysis.
UNIT-II: United Kingdom.
Historical Legacy and Political Traditions.
Constitutional Patterns, Political Institutions, and Socio-Economic Dimensions.
Legislative, Executive, Judiciary.
Public Administration as a Developing Dischiline: Perspectives on Past, Present
and Future, New Marcel Dekker, 1977.
Public Administration in Theory and Practice, Latest Edition.
Public Administration in 21st Century Challenges fin- Good Governance, New
little opposition to PAP rule and little pressure for political change (2006, p.10).
2.5.4 Tunisia In the sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire focused on forcefully
securing territories in North Africa and in 1574 it gained control of Tunisia. While
elections. Nonetheless, we can still say that approximately 20 per cent of voters
voted for a party that was not their first preference in the last four UK general
2005 Party voted for Party first Lab Con LD Other preference (%) (%) (%) (%) Tot
To appreciate the usefulness of locating political preferences in two dimensions it
is apposite to look at how such an approach locates the classical political
ideologies. For our purposes, we can think of an ideology as a coherent worldview
about how the
1990 1995 2000 2005
Average Polity Score
b. Asia, the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East Figure 2.2: Patterns of democracy in
different regions of the world.
II-YEAR, B.A. (HONS.) POLITICAL SCIENCE
COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
(with Special Reference to India)
I I [-YEAR, B.A. (HONS.) POLITICAL SCIENCE
GOVERNMENT AND POLI
Graeme Duncam (ed.)
Gyan Singh Sandhu
Jeremy Waldron (ed.)
B. A. (lions.) Politcal Science
C. Macpherson '
The Politcal Theory of Possessive Individualism, Oxford, Clarendon, Press, 1973.
Politics in China, London, Chambers, 1991.
B.A. (Hons.) Political Science
Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 10th edn.,
London, Macmillan, 1959. Finer H.
Government, London, Methuen, 1969.
UNIT-II: Institution of State.
Essential Elements of State.
Origin of State with Special Reference to the Theory of Social Contract.
Nature & Functions of the State (Liberal & Marxist Perspective).
'N IT-III: Sovereignty, Citizenship and Rights.
Intervention Free market
Figure 3.5: Strategic behaviour with coalition government formation.
3.6 Strategic voting in the UK and the Netherlands All this may seem a little
abstract, so it is usefu
B.A. (lions.) Political Science
Planning and Social Welfare Administration.
Impact of Globalization on Administration: New Public Management Paradigm.
Ashraf & S. N. Mishm
Public Administration: A New Paradigm, New
Fifty five countries and federations; Six multilateral development banks
(including the World Bank and most regional development banks); Eleven
bilateral development agencies; Eight United Nations organisations (including
the United Nations Development P
established in the industry it has a perfectly elastic demand curve. (In other
words, it is horizontal and not downward sloping). Price Supply Demand
Quantity Pe Qe 169 The demand curve for the perfectly competitive firm is
illustrated below: Because the
Mwalyosi, R., Hughes, R. and Howlett, D.J.B. 1999. Introduction Course on
International Institute for Environment and Development and Institute for