Boolean Expressions and Statements
1.The boolean data type
A boolean expression is an expression that is ether true or false
True and False are special values that belong to the data type bool
Ture and False are not strings
2. Comparison Operators
#Put this into python
print('Welcome to Zork!\nMake your way through the dungeon by collecting swords and magic
stones,\nto deafeat monsters, ultimately getting to the final treasure!')
floor1 = ['empty', 'sword', 'stairs down', 'monster', 'magic
A = [1,2,3] b = [4,5,6]
A+b = [1,2,3,4,5,6]
a*3 = [1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3]
[m:n] slices a list starting with the element at index m, and ending one before n
A = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
Now a = [3,4]
If you omit m, the
1.What is Python?
Python is a text based programming language
which use tabbing indentation to control execution.
The int type
Integer values ( counting numbers) such as
1 10 -37 -6987725
Note: can't use commas in ints!
The float type ( Decimal )
in speciation one species splits into two or more dierent species. The most common way which a
speciation occurs is when a barrier or distant migration prevents the ow of genes between two or
more population of a species.
Extinction is process in which
When a member of one species prays on another species
Occurs when one organism the parasite feeds on another organism the host usually by living on or in the host
Interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food shelter or some other res
How does a populations age structure affect its growth or decline?
Even if the global replacement level fertility rate 2.1 children per women were magically achieve tomorrow the worlds population
would keep growing for at least another 50 years this conti
Natural enemies such as predators and parasites control populations in natural ecosystems such as potential pest
Humans upset many of natural population checks and balances by clearing forest grasslands plant monoculture crops
and deuce fields wit
CH 7-1 What factors influence climate?
Weather is a set of physical conditions of the lower atmosphere.
Climate : the average weather in an area over a long time.
Climate theories in different parts of the earth mostly because of a long periods
How can we Produce more for do sustainably?
Reduce Soil Erosion
We need fertile topsoil to produce food properly. Fertile topsoil takes ages to replenish and form. If we
reduce the use of it, then we are allowing it to replenish and form, and will be more
Water that is used to irrigate crops in Central Valley is transported there are three huge aqueducts from the Sierra
These water transfers have benefited people but they also waste plenty of water and degrade the ecosystem where the
water was t
How many people can the earth support?
For the past 200 years to human population has grown rapidly resulting in characteristic J curve of exponential
growth three major factors that caused this population increase. humans developed the ability to expand
Economic issue: vital for producing food and energy
National security and global issue: because of increase of tensions between nations over access to limited water
resources that are shared
Environmentalists issue: excessive withdrawal of water drop in w
Question: How do land and water heat up.
Hypothesis: I predict that sand will heat up faster than water
Manipulated variable: water or sand
Responding variable: temperature
Constants: light, same amount of time, same distance from the
Natural Selection & Evolution
Common ancestry and biological evolution is supported by a plethora of
observational evidence. Scientist have found that evolution does in fact occur and every
living organism on earth
Common Nam scientific name shrub/herb/vin Flower color
Avg diameter (f Catepillars
Native/non-nati Water Req.
0.2cm - 0.5 cm
Avg ht. (ft)
.5cm - .25 cm
APES Study Guide 5
This unit will include the study of species interactions and reproductive strategies and how these and other factors affect
species diversity. You will also learn a few of the tools that may be used to measure species divers
SPECIFIC HEAT OF SAND AND WATER
Specific Heat of Sand and Water
Specific heat is the total energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by one
gram. The specific heat of a substance discerns how f