classical conditioning - a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural
stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.
neutral stimulus - a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - an event that e
personality - the consistent, enduring and unique characteristics of a person
unconscious - the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that
strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
id - the part of the unconscious
Memory - the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced.
Encoding - the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it.
Storage - the process by which information is maintained over a period of time.
Retrieval - the pr
Stress - A person's reaction to his or her inability to cope with a certain tense event or situation
Stressor - A stress producing event or situation
Stress Reaction - The body's response to a stressor
Distress - Stress that stems from acute anxiety or pr
Reliability - The ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions.
Validity - The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.
Percentile System - Ranking of test scores that indicates the ratio of scores lower and high
Thinking - Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new
Image - A visual, mental representation of an event or object.
Symbol - An abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality.
Concept - A label fo
Motivation - an internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal.
Instincts - innate tendencies that determine behavior.
Need - biological or psychological requirement of an organism.
Drive - a state of tension produced by a need that m
Sensation - The activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy.
Perception - The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense
organs and the brain.
Stimulus - Energy that produces a response in a sense orga
Neuron - Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system.
Dendrite - A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons.
Axon - The part of the neuron that carriess messages destined for other neurons.
classical conditioning - A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a
response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
neutral stimulus - A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturall
memory - Process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
encoding. - Processing information so it can be stored
sensory memory - The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant. direct
representation of a stimulus.
cognitive psychology? - The branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental
processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and
thinking. - Brain activity in which people mentally manipulate in
Stage 1 sleep - the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively
rapid, low-amplitude brain waves
Stage 2 sleep - a sleep deeper than stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern,
along with momentary int
29. Rebecca takes her 1-year-old son, Adam, to visit an infanttoddler program in which she hopes to enroll
him. Adam appears very anxious and is unwilling to explore and play with the toys, even though Rebecca is
close by. When Rebecca leaves the room to
12. Mrs. Martin, a third- grade teacher, is instructing cursive writing. At first, she reinforces even crude attempts
to reproduce letters with an encouraging word; as time goes on, though, she reinforces only well-formed letters.
By reinforcing progressi
10. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the diezenoe between PhD and the PsyD degrees?
A A PhD requires more years of study than a PsyD.
B A PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation.
C Fewer people
20 Dr.Petrovic tries to help his clients see how their behavior reects choices they have made. He is most likely a therapist.
K cliniml neuroscience
21 Which of the following is NOT a likely trm
6. The reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button is termed as:
\ . , .
- X cfw_ensory IS to motor what is to
A efferent; afferent
B afferent; efferent
c afferent; intemeuron
D interneuron; eff
34 Anya pulled all-nighters both last night and the night before. Tonight, finally, she anticipates going to bed at
her usual time. Which of the following alternatives MOST accurately describes and @1112? what Anya is
likely to experience?
A Anya will spe
12. According to Abraham Maslow, a major prerequisite for becoming self-actualized is having:
A all of one's lower-order needs fulfilled.
B a major altruistic streak.
c a very seless nature.
D suffered in the past so one can truly appreciate the good aspe
29. is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings we experience at a given moment.
><How long is a typical sleep cycle, in which a sleeper progresses through some or all of the sleep
2 . owing how to serve a badminton birdie is an example of a(n) memory.
23. "I know it! It's um . . . um. . . It starts with G'," begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is
falling prey to
15' Which perspective most immediately replwd stmctumlism in the early days of scientic psychology?
D. Gestalt psychology
16. Which of the following approaches to psychology might have been mo
\SRSE interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently;
[l . . . interference, recently IWICmH of information learned earlier.
A retroactive; proactive
B proactive; retroactive
C regressive; progressive
Tit/Anna is reading her psychology text. The activation of receptors in her retina by a source of physical energy
XS dalled .
18. A(n) is the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present f
6. People whose IQ score ranges from 4054 are most probably:
A mildly retarded.
n 1 oderately retarded.
C severely retarded.
D profoundly retarded.
7. Intellectual disability 'in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of it in t