If F doesnt have a potential Function
If F does have a potential Function
Curve
to be Parameterized
CounterClockwise
Clockwise
(Ellipse)
(Circle)
Length of curves
o
Parameterizing approximation to a curve C(t) at a point p
o
Norms and dot products
o
o dot
174
5
The Dynamics of Groups
units must extract at least three types of resources1: (a) demographic
resources which include the number and characteristics of incumbents in its
division of labor and the number and characteristics of individuals who
consume
Analyzing Corporate-Unit Dynamics in General
175
fields, but I still believe that it is useful to analyze corporate units and a set
of corporate units from both angles, one emphasizing securing sufficient
resources to survive and another stressing the pro
Analyzing Corporate-Unit Dynamics in General
179
generated by the aggregate experiences of incumbents in structurally and
culturally equivalent corporate structures. For example, people living in
large cities generate a very different emotion culture and
Group Dynamics
181
hear over the years as I walk by them on my way to the newspaper stand,
these mens interactions evidence the properties of a group: a division of
role behaviors and even the emergence of a leader. Like doc in William
Foote Whytes Street
180
5
The Dynamics of Groups
We are now ready to look at the three types of corporate units in more
detail. I will approach them with the general considerations about all
corporate units outlined above, but the nature of the unitas a group, organization,
184
5
The Dynamics of Groups
meeting transactional needs will be highly delimited. If there is consolidation of categoric-unit parameters with locations in the hierarchical division
of labor, normatization will increase the salience of categoric-unit memb
Macro-level Environments of Groups
183
unique events in any particular group as its structure and culture unfold.
Still, I do not pay sufficient attention on the unique properties of locales
where groups form because my goal is to understand how groupsas
182
5
The Dynamics of Groups
the structures of societies begin to crumble or change in significant ways,
the groups linking micro-dynamic processes to larger social structures and
culture have already been under pressure. And conversely, for changes initi
178
5
The Dynamics of Groups
within organizations because organizations reveal high levels of structural
equivalence, and communities order relations among corporate units in
diverse domains and, hence, are even more structurally equivalent than
organizat
Analyzing Corporate-Unit Dynamics in General
177
hierarchy (in authority) and centralization (of decision making) in the
division of labor, (e) explicitness of boundaries for the corporate unit as a
whole and its subunits, (f) distributions of members of
176
5
The Dynamics of Groups
Yet, communities are often part of a system of communities, as is outlined in Volume 1 of Theoretical Principles of Sociology (2010a:269282),
and so the structure and culture of networks of communities generate environments fo