The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis
of proteins and of RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis. In other words,
proteins are the link between genotype and phenotype.
Gene Expression The process by which
16.1 - When it was discovered that genes exist as parts of chromosomes, DNA and
protein emerged as the leading candidates for the genetic material. Proteins had a
great heterogeneity and specificity of function. Little was known about nucleic acids,
18.1 Bacterial cells that can conserve resources and energy have a selective
advantage over cells that are unable to do so. Thus, natural selection has favored
bacteria that express only the genes whose products are needed by the cell.
Metabolic control o
DNA technology - Main techniques for sequencing and manipulating DNA. These
tools can be used to analyze gene expression.
Biotechnology The manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful
20.1 Nucleic Acid Hybridization the base pai
Virus An infectious particle consisting of little more than genes packaged into a protein
19.1 A virus is very different than a cell or gene. The genome of a virus may consist of
double-stranded DNA or RNA, and single-stranded DNA or RNA. A virus is
Genomics The systematic study of whole sets of genes (or other DNA) and their
interactions within a species
Bioinformatics the application of computational methods to the storage and analysis of
21.1 Human Genome Project Sequencing of the