Chapter 5 Notes
- fluid: a form of matter that flows when any force is applied, no matter how small
- liquid: phase of matter that can flow and change shape but has constant volume
- gas: phase of matter with high energy molecules that can exp
1. A bar of length 3d is pivoted in the center as shown. At
each of its ends a force of magnitude F is applied in the
directions indicated by the arrows.
Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the picture below,
which represents a rigid uniform rod wit
3. A ball attached to a string is whirled around a horizontal
circle of radius r with a tangential velocity v. If the radius
is changed to 2r and the magnitude of the centripetal force
is doubled the new speed is
A bicycle moves at constant spee
1. Which of the following rotational-translational pairs is
4. Which of the following objects has the least rotational
kinetic energy at the bottom of the incline if they all have
the same mass and radius?
A) and x
B) and v
1. A rotating, rigid body takes 5 s to complete one revolution.
What is its average angular velocity in terms of radians per
4. A wheel begins at rest on top of an incline plane. It rolls
for 5 seconds until it reaches a speed of 4 radians/second.
1. Five planets make circular orbits around a star which is
much more massive than any of them. The mass and orbital
radius of each satellite is given. Which satellite has the
A) Mass: M
4. A satellite in orbit around the Earth h
1. A 4 kg object moves in a circle of radius 8 m at a constant
speed of 2 m/s. What is the angular momentum of the
object with respect to an axis perpendicular to the circle and
through its center?
4. A slender rod with mass .6 kg and length 10 cm has an
1. A solid sphere of radius 0.2 m and mass 2 kg is at rest at a
height 7 m at the top of an inclined plane making an angle
60 with the horizontal. Assuming no slipping, what is the
speed of the cylinder at the bottom of the incline?
Latitude: Rings around Earth parallel to equator
Divided into 90S and 90N around the equator (0)
Longitude: Circles that pass through both poles (MERIDIANS)
Divided into 180E and 180W around the Prime Meridian. The Prime
Meridian passes through
Preservation (p. 253)
Best environments for preservation:
1. Low Energy
2. Fine-grained sediment
3. Rapid burial
Why is all that helpful for preservation?
Good question. Well, if it was a high energy enironment (landslide, beach.),
the creature would be q
Aquifers and Aquitards
Aquifer: A rock body that has the capacity to transmit "usable" quantities of
water to a well.
3 Rock Types that are good aquifers:
3. Fractured Limestone
Aquitard: A rock body that DOES NOT transmit "us
Magma vs. Lava
Molten rock located within the Earth is called MAGMA.
Molten rock that emerges at the Earth's surface is called LAVA.
MAGMA - is a silicate melt that contains crystals and dissolved volatiles
What are silicates? (p. 67) Silicates are a grou
Joint: A break in a rock (crack) in which there is no relative movement of
either side across the break.
Fault: A break in the Earth in which the rocks on either side of the break have
been displaced (vertically and/or horizontally) relative
ROCK CYCLE: Where any rock type can become any other rock type
There are 3 rock types: Igneous Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks, and
DIAGENESIS: Cementation & Compaction
DEFINITION of a MINERAL: A substance that is.
Crystalline in Nature - AND S
THE CONCEPT OF TIME A. Can Time be Defined?
1) Ever-Continuous Linking of a Sequence of
2) The "thing" that connects past moments with
"thing" that causes new moments to occur.
3) Arrow or Circle?
4) Is there a start or finish to time?
Factors that aid in metamorphism:
Presence of fluids (water)
Metamorphic Grades (Degrees of Metamorphism):
LOW: (Mild) - Small changes in texture and/or mineralogy of parent rock.
HIGH: (Extreme) - Radical changes in texture
Plunging Folds: folds in which the fold axis is dipping; the direction the fold
axis is dipping is called the plunge direction
Basin: a fold in which the limbs dip toward the center in all directions (picture
an upright bowl)
Dome: a fold in which the lim