EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Expectancy theory is based on personal perceptions of the performance process and the idea that
people desire certain outcomes for behavior, and they believe there are connections between
effort, performance, and outcomes.
HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
The two-factor theory examines the degree to which individuals are satisfied or dissatisfied at
work. Herzberg's theory provided two lists of needs. For example, work conditions related to
satisfying psychological needs were d
1. Define the terms motivation, needs, and equity.
Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. Needs are the
internal causes of motivation. Equity can be viewed in terms of the individual-organization
exchange. When indivi
WHATS IMPORTANT TO EMPLOYEES?
The perceptions of employees and their supervisors differ considerably in regard to employee
motivation. One thousand employees were asked to rank what was important to them. Their
rankings of job reward factors follows.
MCCLELLAND'S NEED THEORY
McClelland's need theory focuses on personality and learned needs. He categorized motives into
three manifest needs: need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power.
Need for Achievement
The need for achievement
Q1 - The correct answer should be Social Needs. This meets the need staffs have for
enjoyment and social interaction. Of course, some managers worry when they see people
enjoying themselves at work. They cant be enjoying work, can they?
Q2 - The correct a
SOCIAL EXCHANGE AND EQUITY THEORY
Social exchange and equity theory revolve around the balance between efforts and rewards in
organizations. The individual-organization exchange relationship addresses the contributions
and demands that each party makes in
Q1 - The fun elements of working for Microsoft would satisfy:1
Q2 - The fact that Bill Gates often plays an active role in recruiting staff would satisfy.
1. Physical ne
4. What are the Theory X and Theory Y assumptions about people at work? How do they relate
to the hierarchy of needs?
Theory X is a skeptical, negative view of individuals and their relationship to tasks and work.
8. What are the key concepts in the expec
POINTS TO REMEMBER
Keep these points in mind and motivation will have a chance to soar:
Employee contribution important
Recognition from an employer a must
Retaining respect of peers and colleagues
Keeping employee informed
Stay flexible and make sure the
There arouse a tussle between the management and the labor union of a local large
size sugar manufacturing unit. The management intended to increase the per day
working hours for all the employees working in the unit while the workers agreed
APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
There are mainly four approaches to organizational behavior. They are:
Human resources approach '
Human Resources Approach
The human resources approach
ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The key elements in the organisational behaviour are people, structure, technology
and the environment in which the organisation operates.
People: People make up the internal and social system of the organisation.
DEFINITION OF ORGANISATION
According to Gary Johns, "Organisations are social inventions for
accomplishing goals through group efforts". This definition covers wide
variety-of groups such as businesses, schools, hospitals, fraternal groups,
Advertising has long played an important role in media. Traditional media, such as
television, newspapers, magazines and radio, have historically derived a large portion of their
revenue from advertising, and in some cases, all of it. O
An organisation has to match its operations to both the industry that it works in and the
market that it satisfies. How can it satisfy both of these requirements?
This needs a balance and achieving this balance is one of the most difficult jobs of
1 Some people say that organisations do not succeed by fitting their strategy to
opportunities in an existing environment, but by developing strengths to create
entirely new opportunities. What does this mean?
The traditional view says that the environmen