Lab 4: Gas Compression and Expansion
Abstract
The lab consisted of testing adiabatic, no heat exchange, and isothermal, no change in
temperature, processes by compressing and expanding gases using a syringe. Volumes were
measured using the units marked on
Lecture 2
Heat capacity, phase changes
2.1
State variables
In thermodynamics, state variables define the physical state of a system. That is,
if we specify the values of the state variables then we have specified everything
there is to specify about the s
Lecture 4
Heat capacity, mean-free path,
van der Waals
4.1
Heat capacity of gases
For an ideal gas of point particles, we found that
1
3
Ktr = nM hv 2 i = nRT
2
2
(4.1)
Since point particles only have translational degrees of freedom, this is the gases
in
Gas Thermometer
1/20/17
Abstract:
This experiment involved using a constant pressure (isobaric) gas thermometer, and a constant
volume (isochoric) gas thermometer, in conjunction with the ideal gas law, to predict a temperature of
absolute zero. Measureme
This lab had two distinct sections that both produce a measurement for absolute zero measured
in degrees Celsius. The first section involved a constant pressure gas thermometer while the second
section involved a constant volume gas thermometer. Both of t
Lecture 8
Second law, refrigerators, entropy
8.1
Refrigerators
A refrigerator is essentially a heat engine operating in reverse. Hence we just
reverse the flows of heat and work.
Recall, a heat engine absorbs heat energy |QH | from a heat bath and release
Lecture 9
Entropy calculations
9.1
Entropy statement of the second law
If we account for entropy changes in both the system and the surroundings, then:
1. For an irreversible process, the increases in entropy outweigh any decreases in
entropy.
2. For a re
Lecture 6
Internal energy, ideal gas,
adiabatic processes
6.1
Phase change at constant T and P
1 cm3 of water (1 g) at T = 100 C becomes 1671 cm3 steam when boiled at
constant P = 1 atm. The heat of vapourization is LV = 2.256 106 J/kg.
What is the change
Lecture 10
Microscopic view of entropy
10.1
Boltzmanns epitaph
Boltzmann proposed that the entropy of a macroscopic state is
S = kB ln W
Ludwig Boltzmanns epitaph
(10.1)
where W is the number of microstates corresponding to the given macroscopic
state.
10
Lecture 3
Molecular view of matter, kinetics
3.1
Equations of state
The variables needed to specify the state of a system are the mechanical variables
and the temperature T . For a pure gas or liquid we need P, V, T, n. For a mixture
of gases, we also nee
Lecture 5
Molecular speeds, first law, work,
paths
5.1
Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution
Statistical physics says that, at a temperature T , the probability of a system being
in a state with energy E is
P (E) =
1 E/kB T
e
kB T
Boltzmann probability dis
Gas Compression and Expansion
Ryan Nicely - Procedure & Abstract
Andrew Gerry - Discussion & Appendix
Alan Gardner - Introduction
Cherise Stotts - Results & Conclusion
Abstract
This experiment dealt with the relationship between pressure and time for cert
Entropy
1/27/17
Abstract:
This experiment was designed to simulate entropy in a mechanical system. It involved shaking a
box of small googly eyes and then recording how many of them were turned face up or face
down using a binary 1,0 system. The states we
Interference
3/24/17
Abstract
The purpose of this lab was to use the interference of light to determine certain properties that
fall out of double slit and single slit diffraction techniques. Using a laser and either a vertical
single slit, vertical doubl
Microwaves
3/10/17
Abstract
The properties of electromagnetic waves have been studied using microwave signals of
frequency 10.5 GHz. It was found out that the intensity of received signals is a function of
distance: goes as 1/(d^2) and as a function of th
PHY 252 ASU - Geometrical Optics
3/2/17
Abstract
The goal of this lab was to design and test a simple a telescope using basic principles of optics.
To do this, a simple two lens system was implemented with both lenses at their respective focal
lengths fro
Lecture 14
Geometric optics
14.1
Preliminaries
To understand images and image formation, all we need is
Ray model of light
Laws of refraction and reflection
Geometry and trigonometry
The key role played by geometry is the reason for the name geometric
Lecture 11
Optics
11.1
Maxwell gives light
Light is mysterious. Newton thought that light was made up of particles the
corpuscular nature of light. However, for a long time that point of view was abandoned by many, notably Huygens, Euler, Fresnel, and oth
PHY 252 (Physics III)
Thermodynamics, Optics, and Modern Physics
Spring 2017
Lecture Notes
Prof. Christian Dwyer
[email protected]
Physical Sciences F-wing, room PSF 336
Course overview
Instructor: Associate Professor Christian Dwyer
Lecture sched
Lecture 7
Reversibility, heat engines
7.1
Irreversible processes
Thermodynamic processes have a direction associated with them, e.g. heat flows
from hot cold.
Note: cold hot would not violate 1st law, but it never occurs. Natural processes
are irreversibl
Lecture 2
Heat capacity, phase changes
2.1
Thermal expansion
If we heat a rod that is not allowed to expand, stress is generated.
Picture this as follows: First heat the rod and allow it to expand. Then compress
it back to its original length.
From earlie
PHY 252
Thermodynamics, Optics, and Modern Physics
Fall 2016
Lecture Notes
Prof. Christian Dwyer
[email protected]
Physical Sciences F-wing, room PSF 336
Course overview
Instructor: Associate Professor Christian Dwyer
Lecture schedule: Mondays and
Lecture 11
Optics
11.1
Maxwell gives light
Light is mysterious. Newton thought that light was made up of particles the
corpuscular nature of light. However, for a long time that point of view was abandoned by many, notably Huygens, Euler, Fresnel, and oth
Lecture 14
Geometric optics
14.1
Preliminaries
To understand images and image formation, all we need is
Ray model of light
Laws of refraction and reflection
Geometry and trigonometry
The key role played by geometry is the reason for the name geometric
Lab 8: Interference
Abstract
In this laboratory experiment, students studied the behaviors of interference and
diffraction and used these concepts to measure and calculate values including wavelength,
aperture diameter, and slit separation. In part 1, the
Lab 7: Microwaves
Abstract
In Part 1 of the this lab, the group found the most current to be at 0, or when the
transmitter and receiver are level with each other, at 12 mA, while the predicted lowest current
would occur when the transmitter is at 90 to th
Lab 2: Gas Thermometer
Abstract
Scientists have known about absolute zero for a long time now, but how? -273.15 (or
0K) is such a difficult temperature to physically reach. It turns out that theyve done this in the
past by measuring pressure and volume wi
Lab 3: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Abstract - 10%
Students will learn about The First Law of Thermodynamics as Applied to a Mechanical
System. In the past it was believed that thermal energy was like a physical liquid flowing from
one object to another.
Lab 5: The Statistical View of Entropy
Abstract
The group are taught that entropy of a system increases as a system tends towards
equilibrium, and it doesnt seem reasonable for a system to become less chaotic over time, but
is it possible for a system to
Lecture 13
Internal reflection, polarization
13.1
Total internal reflection
Total internal reflection occurs when one of the s in Snells law is greater than
or equal to 90 .
Consider rays travelling from medium 1 to medium 2 with n1 > n2 (e.g., water
into