Chapter 6: Probability
Tools You Will Need
o Proportions
Fractions, Decimals, Percentages
o Basic Algebra
o Z-Scores
Introduction to Probability
o Research begins with a question about an entire population.
o Actual research is conducted using a sample

Chapter 4: Measures of Variability
Notation
3:Summarizing and
Describing
Numerical Data
N
Population size
n
Sample size
Population Mean
mu
Operation of Adding
sigma or sum
X
Adding a group of values
sigma X or
sum of X
M (or X) Sample mean
2
S
X bar
Popu

8/25/2016
Relationships between Variables
Data Structure I: The Correlational Method
o One group of participants
o Measurement of two variables for each participant
o Goal is to describe type and magnitude of the relationship
o Patterns in the data revea

Chapter 5 Z-Scores: Location of scores and Standardized Distributions
Tools You Will Need
o Mean
o Standard Deviation
o Basic Algebra
Purpose of Z-Scores
o Identify & Describe location of every score in the distribution
o Standardize an entire distribut

Measures of Central Tendency
Notation
3:Summarizing and
Describing
Numerical Data
N
Population size
n
Sample size
Population Mean
mu
Operation of Adding
sigma or sum
X
Adding a group of values
sigma X or
sum of X
M (or X) Sample mean
2
S
X bar
Population

7.1 Samples & Population
o The location of a score in a sample or in a population can be represented with a z-score
o Researchers typically want to study the entire samples rather than single scores
o Sample provides estimate of the population
o A sample

Chapter 2 Notes
Tools You Will Need
Proportons (math review, Appendix A)
o Fractions
o Decimals
o Percentages
Scales of measurement (Chapter 1)
o Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
o Continuous and discrete variables (Chapter 1)
Real limits (Chapter

Chapter 2: Frequency Distributions
Tools Needed
o Proportions (math review, Appendix A)
Fractions
Decimals
Percentages
o Scales of measurement (chapter 1)
Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
Continuous and discrete variables (chapter 1)
o Real Limi