Would you expect NaCl to be polar or nonpolar?
Determine the Concept Yes. Because the center of charge of the positive Na ion
does not coincide with the center of charge for the negative Cl ion, the NaCl
Conservation of Linear Momentum
[SSM] Show that if two particles have equal kinetic energies, the
magnitudes of their momenta are equal only if they have the same mass.
Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of a particle
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe
How are baryons and mesons similar? How are they different?
Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e.,
they participate in the strong
Isotopes of nitrogen, iron and tin have stable isotopes 14N, 56Fe and
Sn. Give the symbols for two other isotopes of (a) nitrogen, (b) iron, and
Determine the Concept Two or more nuclides with
[SSM] The approximate total energy of a particle of mass m moving
at speed u < c is (a) m c2 + 1 mu 2 , (b) 1 mu 2 , (c) cmu, (d) mc2, (e) 1 cmu .
Determine the Concept The total relativistic energy E of a
In the classical model of conduction, the electron loses energy on
average during a collision because it loses the drift velocity it had acquired since
the last collision. Where does this energy appear?
For the hydrogen atom, as n increases, does the spacing of adjacent
energy levels on an energy-level diagram increase or decrease?
Determine the Concept Examination of Figure 35-4 indicates that as n increases,
Applications of the Schrdinger Equation
Sketch (a) the wave function and (b) the probability density function
for the n = 5 state of the finite square-well potential.
Determine the Concept Looking at the graphs in the text
Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics
[SSM] The quantized character of electromagnetic radiation is
observed by (a) the Young double-slit experiment, (b) diffraction of light by a
small aperture, (c) the photoelectric
Interference and Diffraction
A phase difference due to path-length difference is observed for
monochromatic visible light. Which phase difference requires the least
(minimum) path length difference? (a) 90o (b) 180o (c) 27
Can a virtual image be photographed? If so, give an example. If not,
Determine the Concept Yes. Note that a virtual image is seen because the eye
focuses the diverging rays to form a real image
Properties of Light
[SSM] A ray of light reflects from a plane mirror. The angle
between the incoming ray and the reflected ray is 70. What is the angle of
reflection? (a) 70, (b) 140, (c) 35, (d) Not enough information is
Maxwells Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
The displacement current has different units than the conduction current.
Displacement current only exists if the electric field in the region is
changing with time.
A coil in an ac generator rotates at 60 Hz. How much time elapses
between successive peak emf values of the coil?
Determine the Concept Successive peaks are one-half period apart. Hence the
[SSM] (a) The magnetic equator is a line on the surface of
Earth on which Earths magnetic field is horizontal. At the magnetic
equator, how would you orient a flat sheet of paper so as to create the
Sources of the Magnetic Field
Sketch the field lines for the electric dipole and the magnetic dipole
shown in Figure 27-47. How do the field lines differ in appearance close to the
center of each dipole?
Picture the Proble
The Magnetic Field
[SSM] When the axis of a cathode-ray tube is horizontal in a region
in which there is a magnetic field that is directed vertically upward, the electrons
emitted from the cathode follow one of the dashed
Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits
In our study of electrostatics, we concluded that no electric field exists
within the material of a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium. Why can we
discuss electric fields wi
If the voltage across a parallel-plate capacitor is doubled, its
capacitance (a) doubles (b) drops by half (c) remains the same.
Determine the Concept The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is a
[SSM] A proton is moved to the left in a uniform electric field that
points to the right. Is the proton moving in the direction of increasing or
decreasing electric potential? Is the electrostatic pote
The Electric Field 2: Continuous Charge
[SSM] Figure 22-37 shows an L-shaped object that has sides that are
equal in length. Positive charge is distributed uniformly along the length of the
object. What is th
The Electric Field 1: Discrete Charge Distributions
Objects are composed of atoms which are composed of charged
particles (protons and electrons); however, we rarely observe the effects of the
electrostatic force. Explain
Thermal Properties and Processes
Why does the mercury level of a thermometer first decrease slightly
when the thermometer is first placed in warm water?
Determine the Concept The glass bulb warms and expands first, before
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Modern automobile gasoline engines have efficiencies of about 25%.
About what percentage of the heat of combustion is not used for work but
released as heat? (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75%, (d)
Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics
Object A has a mass that is twice the mass of object B and object A
has a specific heat that is twice the specific heat of object B. If equal amounts of
heat are transferred to thes
Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases
True or false:
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two objects in thermal
equilibrium with each other must be in thermal equilibrium with a third
Superposition and Standing Waves
[SSM] Two rectangular wave pulses are traveling in opposite
directions along a string. At t = 0, the two pulses are as shown in Figure 16-29.
Sketch the wave functions for t = 1.0, 2.0, and
[SSM] A rope hangs vertically from the ceiling. A pulse is sent up
the rope. Does the pulse travel faster, slower, or at a constant speed as it moves
toward the ceiling? Explain your answer.
Determine the C
For a simple harmonic oscillator, the period is proportional to the square of
For a simple harmonic oscillator, the frequency does not depend on the
If the net force on a particle
If the gauge pressure is doubled, the absolute pressure will be
(a) halved, (b) doubled, (c) unchanged, (d) increased by a factor greater than 2,
(e) increased by a factor less than 2.
Determine the Concept The abso