Apoptosis cell death where there is an elimination of cells without the release of harmful substances in
Necrosis- the death of the cell due to injury and severe trauma caused by an accident causing a severe
physical injury to the c
CHAPTER 36 NOTES
They are found underground because of the environment that they live in. It is hot and humid
and id they dont lie underground they might dry out and die.
These plants practice basic transport mechanisms which are : di
What is thermochemistry?
Thermochemistry is the study
of the transfers of energy as
heat that accompany chemical
reactions and physical
What is heat?
Heat can be thought of as the energy
transferred between sampl
Quick Guide For Restriction Digestion and Analysis
Lesson 1 Restriction Digestion
1. Obtain micro test tubes that contain each
enzyme stock solution, lambda DNA, and
restriction buffer. Keep all the stock
solutions on ice.
2. Obtain one of each colored mi
Chi Square, P-values and statistical error a follow up to HHMIs teacher guide on stats.
It would be nice that coin flips always came out in perfect proportions of 0.5 heads and 0.5 tails.
Real life doesnt work that way.
The universe is subject to Brownian
THE FATHER OF GENETICS
Went to school in Vienna
1857, Mendel began his pea plant breeding
In charge of the monastery garden
Figure 14.0x Mendel
Why Use Pea Plants?
Available distinct heritable fe
CHI-SQUARE PRACTICE PROBLEMS
(Answers are on the next page no peeking ahead of time!)
1. A poker-dealing machine is supposed to deal cards at random, as if from an infinite
In a test, you counted 1600 cards, and observed the following:
Introduction to Protein
information in DNA is in the form of
specific sequences of nucleotides
along the DNA strands
The inherited DNA leads to specific
traits by dictating the synthesis of
proteins = gene expressi
ACIDS AND BASES
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Acids have several distinctive properties.
Acidic compounds have a tart or sour taste. Ex:
vinegar, lemons, and limes
Aqueous solutions of acids are electrolytes
(conduct electric current).
Acids cause ce
DNA - Background
Nucleic acids can direct their own
Resemblance of offspring to parents
depends on the precise replication of
DNA and its transmission from one
generation to the next
The Search for DNA
Frederick Griffith (1928) studying
Harvesting Chemical Energy
Organic molecules release energy when
broken down (catabolism)
Fermentation - sugars are partially broken down without oxygen
Cellular respiration- occurs in mitochondria in
eukaryotes - oxygen required
organic fuel +
What does evolution
Change over time.
Main Ideas of Evolution
Competition winners and losers
Ch. 22 What is Variation?
Variation = the differences between
individual members of a popul
This is a list of terms that you should be able to define/describe. A good rule of thumb to keep in mind when determining if
you can define/describe these terms is whether or not you can explain them to a (reasonably) intelligent 1
Chapter 27: Prokaryotes
They are very efficient in adapting to their environment and is the reason for their abundance on
One example is the Halobacterium which releases bacteriorhodopsin which causes the red
pigments in lakes and is t
They lead a borrowed life where they would usually pass down their DNA to their next host
Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria and transfer their DNA there.
They have a simpler structure than eukaryotes and have a DNA enclos
Important in offering the biodiversity of the life found on earth.
DNA, proteins and other essential things for the good of life on Earth has carbon
Devoted to the study of carbon atoms
mostly contain the atoms o
Very important in chemical process that sustain life
Makes up about of the earth and is essential for all of the living things on earth
Characterized to be a polar molecule where the O is slightly negative while the H is slightly
- Essential for
energy in living
chains to Protein
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions
A pure substance
Elements that are joined together in a fixed ratio
Changes the characteristics of the ele
Chapter 6 Notes
Tools used by Renaissance scientists before as well as modern scientists now.
Refracts the light allowing the magnification of the specimen.
Cannot see anything more than 200 n
Chemical reaction are arranged in these
Starts with a product and then uses a bunch of different enzymes to catalyze a reaction and result to
a final product different than what was started with.
CHAPTER 7 NOTES
What are cellular membranes made up of?
They are made up of mosaics of proteins and lipids.
The cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer that is amphoteric. This means that it
has both hydrophilic and hydrophobi
Video notes in class:
Providing the mitochondria with oxygen and so energy to function.
ELECTRONS = ENERGY
THE MORE ELECTRONS= MORE ENERGY
(reference this portrays the number per glucose molecule)
Chapter 10 Notes
There was skepticism towards the situation experienced by America because they were in the efforts of
starting a new government/ republic.
This has been proven to be impossible by political theories before.
CHAPTER 18 NOTES
Dividing factor during this time: The land extension that was gained in the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty and
the slavery issue.
General Lewis Cass
He became the representative to represent the Democrats af
CHAPTER 17 NOTES
DNA contains the information to create proteins that are needed for gene expression.
They dont have the same language as RNA though. This is why some kind of translation is
needed because these 2 have different languages.
Chapter 20 NOTES
Researchers were able to figure out the entire genome of this organism.
Problems that are faced by scientists:
Genes only code for a small part of the chromosomal DNA and are usually made up of long
Biochemistry Student Objectives
Enduring understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and
Essential knowledge 2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow,