Types of reefs
Fringing/fringed reefs: Form on the edge of
continents or islands
Barrier reefs: form just offshore of continents
The Great Barrier Reef
Atoll Reefs: Volcanic Left-overs!
Atoll Reef Fulanga
Data on fisheries
data may be gathered
in a variety of ways to provide
information on the growth of fish
stocks and the impacts of fishing.
rate of addition of new fish of
a catchable size to the population
Depends on rate of re
Osmoregulation is the process by
which living organisms maintain the
solute and water content in their
blood and body fluids.
To compensate for the loss, marine
bony fish drink sea water.
The excess salts present in the sea water
Surface ocean currents are generally driven
by the wind.
Clockwise spiral in the northern hemisphere
Counter-clockwise spiral in the southern
Deep ocean currents are driven by
temperature and density gradients.
Temperature and depth
Temperature of the water
As the temperature increases, the density of
There is a tendency for warm water to form
a layer on top of colder, denser water.
Life cycle of salmon
Adult salmon migrate from the sea into fast-flowing
freshwater streams to lay their eggs in a gravel nest.
The eggs hatch into fry known as alevins, which grow
and develop through a sequence of stages, known as parr
and then smolts.
El Nio-Southern Oscillation
El Nio (Spanish for the Christ Child) =
warm surface current in equatorial
Southern Oscillation = change in
atmospheric pressure over Pacific Ocean
accompanying El Nio
ENSO describes a combined oceanica
Hurricane Occurrences and Geographic Distribution
Different names for the same storms
Hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean
Typhoon in the north-west Pacific Ocean
Tropical cyclone in other regions, including
the Indian and South Pacific Oceans.
littoral zone is the area of a coast between the
high water mark and the lowest part of the shore which
is permanently submerged.
littoral zone is part of the sea shore, the area
where the land meets the sea.
shores vary fro