The Bow Shock and the Magnetosheath
The solar wind plasma travels usually at speeds which are faster than any fluid plasma wave relative to
the magnetosphere. Therefore a standing shock wave forms around the magnetosphere just as in front
Single Particle Dynamics
The motion of charged particles in assumed electric and magnetic field can provide insight into many
important physical properties of plasmas. While it does not provide the full plasma dynamics it can
provide clues on th
Electromagnetic Fields in Space
Magnetic and electric field are fundamental properties in the entire universe. Massive magnetic fields
exist in the vicinity of pulsars, in active galactic nuclei, and probably around black holes. In the solar
During periods of southward IMF magnetic reconnection connects closed geomagnetic field with interplanetary magnetic field generating newly opened magnetic flux (Figure 8.1). Along the newly
opened field particles can freel
Basic Plasma Properties
In general magnetic and electric fields are determined by Maxwells equations, corresponding boundary conditions and the source (charges and currents) distributions.
The Inner Magnetosphere
The motion of trapped particles in the inner magnetosphere is a combination of gyro motion, bounce
motion, and gradient and curvature drifts. In particular in the inner magnetosphere (r < 6RE ) this
The basic elements of the magnetotail of the magnetosphere (Figure 9.1) are
Mantle (current): Region of open field with high density magnetosheath plasma.
Lobes: Low density, strong magnetic field region. Energy is stored in
Definition: The Magnetopause = Boundary between the magnetosphere and the shocked solar wind.
Problem: Solar wind plasma entry - Is the region where solar wind plasma enters not part of the