Chapter 16
Wave Motion
Types of Waves
There are two main classes of waves:
Mechanical waves
Some physical medium (material) is being disturbed
The wave is the propagation of a disturbance through
a medium
Electromagnetic waves
No medium is required
Exampl
General equation for 2D vectors
If you measure angle with respect to the + x
axis, then Ax = A cos and Ay = A sin so the
vector may be written as
= A cos + A sin .
,
Since the unit vector = we can write
a unit vector = cos + sin .
We know that the magnit
RC Circuit
The situation is the charging of a capacitor through a resistor by a DC
source.
Application of KVL (Loop rule) results in V1 VR VC = 0, or V1 = VR + VC.
This is V1 = I R + Q/C. As usual, R and C are constants. We take a time
derivative to get a
Chapter 30
Sources of the Magnetic Field
Biot-Savart Law Introduction
Biot and Savart conducted experiments on
the force exerted by an electric current on a
nearby magnet.
They arrived at a mathematical expression
that gives the magnetic field at some poi
Chapter 33
Alternating Current Circuits
AC Circuits
An AC circuit consists of a combination of
circuit elements and a power source.
The power source provides an alternating
voltage v(t).
Notation Note
Lower case symbols will indicate instantaneous
values
Chapter 29
Magnetic Fields
A Brief History of Magnetism
After 800 BC or BCE (before current era)
Greeks (Hellenes) near Iron Coast of Magnesia
Discover that lodestones (which contain magnetite
Fe3O4) attract pieces of iron
From 300 BCE to 80 AD or CE (cur
Chapter 31
Faradays Law
Michael Faraday
1791 1867
English physicist and chemist
Great experimental scientist
Contributions to early
electricity include:
Invention of motor, generator,
and transformer
Electromagnetic induction
Laws of electrolysis
Inductio
Chapter 32
Inductance
Joseph Henry
1797 1878
American physicist
First director of the
Smithsonian
Improved design of
electromagnet
Constructed one of the first
motors
Discovered self-inductance
Unit of inductance is named
in his honor
Some Terminology
Use
Chapter 28
Direct Current Circuits
Direct Current
When the current in a circuit has a constant
direction, the current is called direct current
Most of the circuits analyzed will be assumed to
be in steady state, with constant magnitude and
direction.
Beca
Chapter 27
Current
And
Resistance
Electric Current
Electric current is the rate of flow of charge
through some region of space.
The SI unit of current is the ampere (A)
1 A = 1 C/s
The symbol for electric current is I (from
intensity).
Average Electric Cu
Chapters 19, 20, 22
Temperature and heat
Temperature
Temperature is a measure of the heat (thermal
energy) of a substance.
Our sense of touch is one indicator but we need a
more objective (and safer for us) method so devices
like thermometers and thermoco
Chapter 23
Electric Fields
Electricity and Magnetism,
Some History, 1
As early as 700 BCE (before current era) electric and
magnetic observations were made in Greece
Experiments with amber (tree resin) and magnetite
(iron oxide ore).
As early as 700 CE (
Chapter 25
Electric Potential
Electrical Potential Energy
When a test charge is placed in an electric field,
it experiences a force
F q oE
The force is conservative
Emech is conserved.
U = Wcons
If the test charge is moved in the field by some
external a
Chapter 26
Capacitance
and
Dielectrics
Capacitors
Capacitors are devices that store electric
charge.
Their charge storage capacity is known as
capacitance.
Examples of where capacitors are used include:
tuning circuits in radio receivers
filter circuits i
Chapter 24
Gausss Law
Mechanical flux
= v n A
This flux has units of m3/s and represents a
volume flow rate.
n is the unit normal () vector.
It gives the orientation of the fluid flow to the
cross-sectional area.
In a tube or pipe, ordinarily = v A as t
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