Biology: Scientific Method
Biology is the science of living systems
Characteristics of Life
Composed of Cells
Acquires, stores and uses energy (via metabolism)
Responds to Stimuli (Irritability)
Maintains constant internal environments (Homeostasis)
Chemistry of Life
Matter is anything that occupies space. Matter is made of one or more elements.
An element is the most pure form of matter. Elements are made of atoms.
There are 111 elements and of these 92 are naturally occurring.
THINK BEFORE YOU PRINT:
The Cell is the basic unit of life.
Robert Hooke (1635 1723) discovered the cell while looking at slices of cork under a
primitive microscope. The Latin word, cellulae, meaning little rooms.
The generally accepted parts of
THE MACROMOLECULES OF CELLS
The four macromolecules discussed below are the basis of carrying out the processes of Life. The
compounds all have a skeleton composed of carbon.
Carbon Skeletons and Their Structures
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydr
The Plasma Membrane
The plasma membrane organizes chemical activities of the cell.
The plasma membrane is selectively semi-permeable, ie. allows only certain substances to enter
within the cell.
The plasma membran
-1Study Guide for Examination 1
Bring in a scanton with 50 answers on each side. No electronic devices allowed in the
exam. When you come into the exam please sit every other seat.
Steps in the scientific method, and definitions of theory and hypothesis
CELL RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Your Name: _
What word defines the ability to do work?
Review endergonic and exergonic chemical reaction: Which ty
1. Define Enzymes, Exergonic, Energy, Endergonic
2 Know differences in Calvin Cycle, Kreb Cycle, Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle
3. What kingdoms and types of cells use glycolysis, kreb, ETC, Light and Dark
4. Which of the stages o
Pushing Earths Capacity
Everything has its natural limitation. Some may have more while some have less. The earth too has
limitations. Not until the 21st century are humans coming to understand the true meaning of earths
carrying capacity. Knowing that ea
Give the letter/s in Q12 that represents an oxidation?
In photosynthesis, electrons used in the electron transport chain come from what molecule?
In cell respiration, electrons used in the electron transport chain come from what molecule?
CELL RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
1. What word defines the ability to do work?
2. Review endergonic and exergonic chemical reaction: Which type of chemical reaction
requires an input of energy?
3. What type of energy is glucose and starch?
4. Give an ex
26. Which recessive disorder increases resistance to malaria.
27. Which disorder is dominant and causes neurological deterioration. _
28. A trait that expresses itself as a heterozygote is _ (dominant or recessive).
29. Sex linked traits are found on th
Practice Question for Replication, Genetics and Biotechnology
What nucleotides are in a strand of DNA?
The strand of mRNA contains what sugar?
Protein synthesis is called
To make RNA from DNA is called
Which RNA assembles into ribos
Hypothesis: a proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for future
Thesis: a set of ideas intended to explain something.
Exam 3 Cell Bio
Extracellular Matrix (ECM): molecules outside cell and transported by exocytosis
Q1: Xteristics of ECM? Gel-like ground substance, Primarily made up of polysaccharides
(sugars) like GAGs and proteoglycans (proteins that have sugar on them)
Sickle cell is known to shorten an individuals life span and few treatments have been
introduced for it. Hemoglobin (Hb) is responsible for oxygen transport in the red blood cell
and it is a protein. Expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in large volumes i
Fragile X is normally caused by mutation in a single gene called FMR1 (Fragile X
mental Retardation-1) and this mutation was named FRAXA, which causes almost all the
Fragile X syndrome. The FMR-1 gene is located on the long arm of X chromosome with
In studying the genetic factors causing AD, Genome wide association studies has proven
useful; this is an approach whereby markers across the complete sets of DNA or genomes of
many individuals are scanned rapidly to find genetic variations associated wit
Somatic cell mutations appear at a stage in an individuals life without been transferred to their
offspring via germline. Heritable change in gene expression that can be active or inactive and
doesnt involve any changes in the underlying DNA sequence and
Retinoblaistoma is a malignant tumor that occurs in children, occasionally before the age five
years that affects the development of the retina. It can be sporadic (non-hereditary form) or
familial (hereditary). Rb develops as a result of mutations in the
Structural chromosomal abilities deals with tracing gene disorders to a specific
chromosome in individuals by mapping the genes to determine how it occurs, possibly find a
cure or use it to figure out other important disease genes in humans. Chromosomal
So taking this idea to an extreme, suppose a mad scientist fertilized a human egg with the
pronucleus of a second egg (from a different woman) to make a diploid zygote.
1. How would this zygote be different genetically or epigenetically from a normal
Single gene disorder is mutation in a single gene that causes diseases that can be transferred
to subsequent generations in different ways like uniparental disomy and genomic imprinting.
Single gene disorders have wide range of occurrence in individuals b
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Define the cell theory
Describe the difference between Prokaryotic
familiar with the basic organelles and the roles of
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Biology 3 -Lecture 2
lntro to Chemistry
that has mass and volume.
States of Matter:
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Phvsical Properties: Properties tha do not change the physical nature of a matter.