1. According to Rene Descartes, in order to find a metaphysical absolute (which can also be
read as an idea that is essentially perfect and without any doubt), we must challenge
every belief that we have, however widely accepted that particular idea seems
1. In 1651, Thomas Hobbes published The Leviathan in which he said that the state is a
mechanical person (basically it is a machine) and by saying this he is criticizing the state.
He tries to avoid any metaphysical categories that dont relate to physical
Before Kant, David Hume accepted the general view of rationalism about a priori knowledge.
However, upon closer examination of the subject, Hume discovered that some judgments thought
to be analytic, especially those related to cause and