NEED TO KNOWS FINALIZED FOR EXAM 1
Stuff I Need to Know for Econ 15A
These questions represent everything you need to know for the upcoming exam (only as
far as we have covered in lecture, of course). The particular numbers in data sets,
parameter values,

NAME: _
I.D.: _
TEST TWO
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 15A
OCTOBER 23, 2015
1. What is an advantage of Cramers V compared with lambda? (Note: Lambda has advantages over Cramers V, as well. Please do
not address these stick to the question.)
2 3.
(Two q

Page 1 of 60
Stuff I Need to Know for Econ 15A
How to Understand and Use This Document:
This document contains a large number of specific questions (aka NeedToKnows
actual exam questions may differ; cf. below). They will eventually encompass
everything y

Page 1 of 70
Stuff I Need to Know for Econ 15A
How to Understand and Use This Document:
This document contains a large number of specific questions (aka NeedToKnows
actual exam questions may differ; cf. below). They will eventually encompass
everything y

Nominal: favorite band, high school Ordinal- numbers have value but not scale: hotel rankings, NFL rankings Intervalnumbers have value and scale but 0 has no meaning: temp in Fahrenheit Ratio- numbers have value and scale and can be
multiplied/divided Kur

NAME: I.D.:
TEST NUMBER FOUR
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 110A
NOVEMBER 18, 2005
1. True or false and explain: Compound events must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
awammav mmusa 51: Mumuum lam/LEM?
FALE: Aw!) EXHwW ma, NOT Maw EVENTS.
Gums i H

The FIFTEEN QUESTIONS follow
1) Five cards are dealt, what is the probability that the 5th one is a king?
2) Five cards are dealt, what is the probability that the 5th one is a king, given that the first four are queens?
3) Five cards are dealt, what is t

NAME: _
I.D.: _
TEST TWO
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 15A
APRIL 26, 2013
1 2.
(Two questions Twenty points) Draw a boxplot for the following data: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 30, 34, 52, 60. Please draw it
horizontally in the space below and make it as wi

Homework 2
Due in Lab on Wednesday, Aug 17 2016. If you cannot attend the discussion, please
arrange to submit your homework ahead of time to the TA.
PART A.
Q1. Regression: Compute the covariance, correlation coefficient and regression line
for the examp

Econ 15A, Probability and Statistics in Economics I
Midterm (Max points: 100)
Name
This sample midterm test consists of 22 sample multiple-choice questions and 7 sample short-answer
questions. The midterm exam on Friday will have 10 multiple-choice questi

Homework 3 Answers
Q1.
a. P(K or Q) = 4/52 + 4/52 = 8/52
b. P(face or Spade) = 12/52 + 13/52 3/52 = 22/52
a>b
q2. Since the probability of both heads and tails is the same, i.e., 0.5 each, p(HH) =
p(HT) = 0.5*0.5. Continuing in this way:
(i)
Probability o

Page 1 of 68
Stuff I Need to Know for Econ 15A
How to Understand and Use This Document:
This document contains a large number of specific questions (aka NeedToKnows
actual exam questions may differ; cf. below). They will eventually encompass
everything y

Basic Probability Theory
1
1. Probability Axioms
Sample space, events
Summary: 4 rules of probability
2. Conditional Probability
Bayes Theorem
3. Independence
Random Sample
4. [Simpsons Paradox]
2
II. The World:
Probability Theory
I. Data:
Descriptive
Sta

The Normal Distribution
1
The Normal Distribution
The normal distribution (aka the
Gaussian distribution) is the most
important distribution in all of science.
pdf of N(0, 1)
cdf of N(0, 1)
2
The Normal Distribution
The most important reason why this
d

The Normal Distribution
1
The Normal Distribution
The normal distribution (aka the
Gaussian distribution) is the most
important distribution in all of science.
1 .0
0 .4
0 .8
0 .3
0 .6
0 .2
N(0, 1)
0 .4
0 .1
0 .2
4
2
2
pdf of N(0, 1)
4
4
2
cdf of N(

Descriptive Statistics:
Important properties of a data
set
1
II. The World:
Probability Theory
I. Data:
Descriptive
Statistics
X
Y
Z
33
2
300
33
2
300
29
1
1538
26
1
1538
32
1
1538
27
1
1538
32
1
420
22
1
460
50
1
1211.53
54
1
1096.15
25
2
288.46
20
2
134

The Binomial Distribution
1
The Binomial Distribution
The binomial distribution addresses the
question:
In a random sample of n trials, where
each trial has a probability p of success,
what is the probability of getting k
successes?
n k
Its mathematica

The Uniform Distribution
The uniform distribution is useful when a
quantity is known/assumed to fall within a
definite finite interval, and there is no further
information.
E.g., without checking the schedule, you arrive at
a subway stop, knowing only t

Continuous Probability
Distributions
1
1. Continuous distributions
1.
2.
3.
4.
pdf: Probability Density Function
cdf: Cumulative Distribution Function
Probability
More on pdfs
2. Uniform Distribution
3. Expectations
2
Continuous Probability
Distributions

Bernoulli Trials
1
Bernoulli Trials
A simple but important random variable is a
Bernoulli trial, which is a random variable X
that always takes the value 0 or 1:
Pr[X = 1] = p
Pr[X = 0] = (1 p)
0<p<1
2
Bernoulli Trials
If X is a Bernoulli trial, it is e

Discrete Random Variables
1
1. Random Variables
2. Expectations
1. Linearity of expectations
1. Additivity of means
2. Additivity of independent variances
3. Binomial Distribution
1. Bernoulli Trials
2. Permutations
3. The binomial coefficient
4. Cumulati

Homework 1
Due in Lab on Wednesday, Aug 10 2016. If you cannot attend the discussion, please
arrange to submit your homework ahead of time to the TA.
A. Reading Data
The following data is obtained from aggregate scores of 30 students in a statistics
class

NAME: _ I.D.:
TEST FIVE
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS ECON ISA
DECEMBER 9 2015
I. There is a curve that is far from normal. Donna is in the 87th percentile rank and George is in the 17th percentile rank Is it possible
to calculate the probability of pickin

NAME: _
_
I.D.:
TEST ONE
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 15A
OCTOBER 17, 2014
Use the following for questions 1-5. A researcher was interested in how a persons score on a practical driving test is affected by the city
in which the person lives. She got a

NAME: _
_
I.D.:
TEST ONE
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 15A
APRIL 12, 2013
1.
What does each column in a data table represent?
2 4. (Three questions thirty points) Researchers wanted to examine what affects low birth weight. They were curious about the

NAME: _
_
I.D.:
TEST TWO
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, ECON 15A
OCTOBER 21, 2011
1.
Please rank the following graphs in order from smallest standard deviation to largest standard deviation. Assume the range is the
same for all of the graphs.
A
2.
B
C
D
Whic