1.2 What Does Poetry Have to Say?
Who is the speaker of
What is the message
speaker is trying to
communicate to the
We need to think
abbreviation a shortened form of a word. A period after the shortened form indicates the abbreviation. Example: Sat. is the abbreviation for Saturday; Ave. for
Avenue. Note: Many writers avoid abbreviations in formal writing.
absolute a phrase ma
426 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Use semicolons in three situations:
First, use a semicolon to separate two sentences when there is no coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or, nor, or for.
With coordinating conjunction: Autumn leaves s
Punctuation / 425
Mr. Talbert, who is wearing the red flannel shirt, won the contest.
(The adjective clause is nonessential, or not needed, to identify Mr. Talbert.)
Set off introductory elements (words that introduce a sentence) with a comma. An
Use a comma to separate items in a series. A series is made up of three or more
nouns, verbs, modifiers, or phrases. If all items in the series are followed by and or
or, omit commas.
Squirrel, rabbit, and venison are the thr
422 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
A noun clause characteristically starts with a word called a relative pronoun:
who, whose, whom, which, what, that, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever
The person most likely to win is whoever least expec
Phrases and Clauses / 423
The author whose work I most admire writes only nonfiction.
(The adjective clause describes the noun author.)
Confusion between adjective and noun clauses can occur because they can start
with the same words. To decide which is w
Phrases and Clauses / 421
Present participles are usually characterized by their ing endings, such as speaking or raining. While present participles look like gerunds, they dont function the
way gerunds do.
Participles can have objects and modifiers, and
420 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
A gerund is a verb-like word that functions as a noun and is characterized by its
Identifying birds is his forte.
(Identifying looks like a verb but acts like a noun as subject of the sentence.)
Phrases and Clauses
Verbals and Verbal Phrases
Verbals look like verbs, hence their name; but verbals function as nouns, adjectives,
or adverbs. There are three kinds of verbals: infinitives, gerunds, and participles.
418 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Good is an adjective; well can be an adjective or adverb. As an adjective, well
means in good health, of good appearance, satisfactory. Well as an adjective
usually follows a linking verb.
All is well (adjective after
Punctuation / 427
Second, use a colon to introduce a formal list. Words such as the following or as follows frequently signal a formal list.
The attendant made the following checks on my car: oil level, transmission
fluid level, battery, tire pressure, an
428 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Use italics for foreign words, titles of long works (books, magazines, films), and for
letters or words referred to as such.
Geoffreys goal is to graduate cum laude.
I just finished reading Random Passage whose author w
Sometimes there is a big conflict between personal desire which we are pursuing and the
desire which conforms for us .we need to deal with it when we need to choose our own reality
desire in our daily life. The personal desire which we are pursuing is lik
Thesis statement and organizational plan for the assignment 1.3
[Consider the impact words have had on your own life through poetry,
literature, song lyrics, lines from films and graphic/comic books.]
a. Overall: I want to make a Powe
1.1a Who Am I? (Planning)
1. Where Am I From?
2. To Whom Am I
I am from China which is an
Asian country with a long
history. My family decided to
send me to Canada because
they think that I need to be
independent and have my own
436 / Glossary
crisis the turning point of a conflict, when it becomes clear how the conflict will
critical writing aesthetic judgment based on analysis, most often applied to paragraphs or multi-paragraph papers written about a piece of lite
Glossary / 435
compound verb two or more simple predicates. Example: The canoe rolled on
its side and dumped us in the water. [Compare with compound predicate. See also
compound word a word made from joining two or more words: sister-in-law;
434 / Glossary
comparison a method of development by which two subjects, seemingly different,
are shown to be similar. [See Chapter 8, Comparison and Contrast, for the organization and general techniques used to develop a comparison paragraph or multipara
Glossary / 433
clause, subordinate a group of words containing a subject and verb that depend
on a main clause for meaning; also called a dependent clause. Three kinds of subordinate clauses function as modifiers and nouns: adverb, adjective, and noun
432 / Glossary
bibliography cards cards, usually 3" 5", on which bibliographic information
is recorded prior to the preparation of a bibliography. [See Chapter 34, Research
Paper, for a full explanation of preparing the cards.]
biography the account of a
Glossary / 431
anecdote a short, entertaining story of some happening, usually personal or biographical, useful in introductions, both oral and written, as well as in supporting
examples in less formal situations.
announcement a written, printed, or oral
Usage / 417
Ninth, use the pronouns who and whom the same way you would use he and him.
Look at the way the pronoun is used in its own clause; ignore the rest of the sentence.
She didnt know (who/whom) to ask for money.
(Look at the clause, reword, and su
416 / Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Most errors occur when the pronoun is part of a compound object. To avoid the
error, consider the pronoun alone.
The voters elected Jordan and her to the school board.
(The voters elected her to the school board.)
Usage / 415
Words that end in ics are usually singular, especially when they refer to a
study, science, or practice. They are plural only when they have modifiers in
politics, mathematics, civics, ethics, economics, athletics
Mathematics is her f
Essay Test Responses / 189
PREDICT Indicate a logical outcome of an action or condition. [See Chapter 6,
Cause and Effect, and Chapter 12, Opinion.]
Example: Predict the results of pH variables on soil in terms of vegetation
192 / Types of Writing
STEP 3: PrewritingOrganizing the Response
You have already organized the main ideas in Step 2. Now you must organize each
response. In general, follow this plan:
Give an introductory statement, usually beginning with the same word
Essay Test Responses / 191
Make a list or scratch outline of the main ideas. [See Chapter 31, Outlines.]
For the preceding three sample questions, scratch outlines may look like the
Example 1: q.n. = numerical descriptions
4 for each elec:
190 / Types of Writing
When you have answers to these questions, plan a schedule for yourself. If the test
includes one section of 25 multiple-choice questions and another of two essay questions, you must allot sufficient time for each of the essay questi
188 / Types of Writing
DEFINE Clarify the meaning of a given topic. [See Chapter 9, Definition.]
Example: Define metamorphosis as it applies to the German cockroach.
Other clue words: definition, explain the meaning, clarify
DEMONSTRATE Show an aspect