Introduced by Carolus Linnaeus
based on similarity
homology not analogy
avoids polyphyletic groups
subjective ( ex; bats were once considered primates )
taxonomic levels do
Chapter 1: Overview of Evolutionary Biology
Tree of life
o All species that have ever lived form branching tree of evolutionary relationships
o All living things descended from common ancestral population
o Over time desce
Chapter 3: Natural Selection
The three components of natural selection
o Variation: Individuals in a population differ from one another and natural
selection acts on variation
o Inheritance: Differences inherited by offspring
o Reproductive success differ
Chapter 2: Early Evolutionary Ideas and Darwin
Early ideas of life
o Supernatural world
Driven by divine action
o Mechanistic world
Driven by fixed laws of nature
Before Darwin: Earlier views of life
o Plato: Species are ideal forms; do not change, ; va
What is Evolution?
Evolution is a change in gene frequencies over time. Factors contributing to evolution are;
selection, genetic drift, gene flow, displacement, selection, variation, heritability, mutation, and
to some extent the
Vertebrates are Deuterostomes
-1st full body
-discovered in 1983
- Ostracoderm- Pieraspis
- Acanthodonia Climatius
-diversification of fish
-1st amphibians (t
Name: _Ryan Schuman_
Selection, Genetics and Evolution
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Evolution is the change of a species over time through the means of natural selection and decent
with modification. I interpret it as there being mutations in the genetics of an individual or group of
individuals in a population, these mutations being eit
Changes in gene frequencies in population.
Probability of passing genes to future generations.
a correlation between phenotype and fitness
A trait that has evolved as a result of se
Homo sapiens have been on Earth for roughly 200,000 years.
4th century BC
Plato-Theory of Forms
Iedos (perfect form)
Aristotle- Scalae Naturae ( scale of nature )
18th century, age of reason, opinions based on evidence
Evolution in Europe in
Evolution of Genes & Genomes
Genome size and the C-paradox
C value is the amount of DNA in a genome.
genes resulting from duplication
genes resulting from.
regulate developmental processe
Elizabeth A. Tibbetts, James Dale. A socially enforced signal of quality in a paper wasp. In
Nature. 23. 2004.
Douglas J. Futuyma, 2009 Evolution: Second Edition, Sunderland Massachusetts, USA.
Peter-Frank Rseler, Ingeborg Rs
What is natural selection?
o Not a force
o Correlation between phenotype and fitness
o Results in evolution only if phenotype is heritable
o The only process that results in adaptation
o Darwins three requirements
Variation, heritability, a
a. What is a species?
a.i. Biological species
a.iii. Genetic species
a.iv. Species= a gene pool
2. How many species?
a. Erwin (1982)
b. 162 beetle species found in only one species of tree
Chapter One Why is it important to study evolution? o Evolution is the unifying theory of biology, and nothing in biology would make sense without it. o It is important in all fields, and is the framework for the past, present, and future: important in ag
Key items, Ch. 2
Trees for history and classification What is a phylogeny? How can we build a phylogeny? What are some key terms used in phylogenetics? What is maximum parsimony? What is a molecular clock? What are some problems in phylogenetic analysis
CH. 2: The tree of life
Classification and Phylogeny
What is the history of life?
Phylogenetics: study of the genealogical history of organisms
Relationship to a common ancestor Relationship between organisms When various characteristics evolved
Figure 6.11 (A) Gondwana in the early Cretaceous, indicating approximate times connections among the southern land masses were severed
Figure 6.13 Phylogeny of major lineages in 3 orders of birds, showing their association with land masses, as they were i
Cyanobacteria No O2 early For 2 BY, it was all bacteria, all the time
No O2 early For 2 BY, it was all bacteria, all the time
2.7 Bya some eukaryote