ANCIENT ROMAN NUMERATION
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE ROMAN SYSTEM
1. In addition to symbols for 1, 10, 100, and 1000, extra symbols
denote 5, 50, and 500. This allows less symbol repetition within a
For efficiency, positional system of numbering is used.
In a positional numeral, each symbol (called a digit) conveys two things:
1. face value the inherent value of the symbol
2. place value the power of the b
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE CHINESE SYSTEM
1. A single symbol, rather than a pair, denotes the number of 1s. The multiplier
(1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , or 9) is written, but the power of the base (100) is omitted.
2. In the 10s pair, if the multiplie
One of the oldest calculation methods is the abacus, a device made with a series of rods with sliding beads and
a dividing bar. This device is read from right to left and the rods have values of 1, 10, 100, 1000, and so on. Th