British Colonial Regime
Revolution in Bengal
Siraj-ud-daula, Nawab 1756-57
Reduces growing autonomy of E.I.C, in Bengal
Black Hole of Calcutta
Battle of Plassey 1757
Clive of India
Success using Dupleixs tactics in Madras region
Commands army at Plassey
Communalism and Muslim Identity
- Memories of Warlords
- Invasions & conquest
- Temple looting and iconoclasm
- Muslim Political Power
- Discrimination: jizya
- Temple building/repairs
- Sikh gurus
- Suppressed History
European Penetration of India
Importance of pepper
Dutch East India Company, 1602
Breaks Portuguese monopoly to Indian Ocean
English East India Company, 1600,1603
Follow Dutch lead, struggle initially
Coffee trade from Arabia to India
Early Indian Nationalism
Social Reform and Early Nationalism
- Influenced by British liberalism
- Pax Britannica beneficial for India
- Modern, western civilization also good
- Assimilation thus desirable
- Social reforms=crucial marker of moder
Martial Law 1958- 1962
General Muhammad Ayub Khan Leads Coup
- 1956 constitution abrogated
- Central & provisional governments dismissed
- All political parties banned
- Basic Democracy created 80,000 voters only
Focuses on Ending Corruption: Colossus of
Emergence of Indian Reform
Europeans/British initially depended on
- Local merchants
- Intermediaries in pepper/textile trades
- Ocean-going merchants seeking EIC protection
- Investors looking for safe(r) returns
This evolved, by late 1
Origins of Nationalism
- Missionary Premise
- Anglicist Promise
- T.B. Macaulay
British Liberalism Institutionalized
- Charter Renewal Act 1833
- East India Company, must open jobs in India to anyone who is
Political & Military Events
British Military Expansion Up To 1857
- Anglo-Nepalese War 1814-16
- Gurkha recruitment begins
- Anglo-Burmese War 1824-26
- Coastal region of Burma
- Great Game with Russia
- Disaster in Afghanistan 1839-41
World War II
- Viceroy unilaterally declares India at War (September 1939)
- INC protests:
- Want clarification of war aims
- Responsible government at once
- Dominion Status after war ends
- British appeal to Muslims
- All groups will be consu
Impact of World War One on Indian Muslims
- Western-educated youth
- Muhammad Ali
- Abul Kalam Azad (scholar & journalist)
- Deobandi & other ulama
Rejection of Sir Sayyids Ideas
- Loyalism to Islam, British Raj
Religious Revival and Extremist Nationalism
Hindu Revival Brahmo Samaj
B S founded 1828 in Calcutta by Rammohun Roy
- Vedanta (philosophical Hinduism)
- Worship God as unity
- Truth above doctrines/teachers/texts
- Image worship, ritualism, caste=inferior
Gandhis Rise to Power
- Born in 1869 into a Gujarati Hindu family
- Jain influences
- Father: diwan of petty princely state
- Very devout mother
- Western education
- Not especially good student
- Cultural crisis
- Child marriage (age 13)
1937 Constitutional Revolution
Why is it that some people call this the constitutional revolution of 1937?
Death of Substantive of Due Process
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, 1937
- State of Washington has enacted a minimum wage law for women and
FDR & The New Deal
Why was the New Deal so controversial in its day?
- Expansion of Federal Governments role in economic affairs.
- Delegation of legislative power unconstitutionally to executive branch allowing
him to enact regulations on businesses.
Late Reconstruction into Early Labor Cases
- Immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe
- Movement from rural to urban centers for job opportunities.
- Rise of corporations
- Growth of corporate capital
- Trend toward organiz
Early Reconstruction Legislation
Civil War 1861-1865
Southern States seceded from the Union.
- Protection of States Rights, Slavery being the main issue.
- Secession based on constitutional theory that states were sovereign.
- 1861, 11 Southern States sec
Crisis of 1890
Crisis of 1890
- Depression of 1893
- Pullman Strike
- Coxeys March
- Populist Movement
- In re Debs (1895)
- Federal Government has the power to use military as well as injunction
in order to prevent the obstr
- Ratified in 1868
- Privileges & Immunities clause
- Nullified by Slaughterhouse
- Due Process clause
- Liberty to contract, Lochner v. New York
- Incorporation of freedom of speech & press
- 1937, Selection of th
Civil Rights & Social Justice
- Way in which the Supreme Court and the society functions in the 50s
and 60s to bring about not only a social movement but also a top
movement from the court, from the congress, and the president.
Introduction to Constitutional History
What is History?
- Analysis or Interpretation of the past; Social Events, Political Movements,
Individuals, Economic Trends, Governmental Structures, Etc.
- Primary Source; People who witnessed an event and can give
Presidents of the 20s
Warren G Harding
- Return to Normalcy
- Succeeded Harding after his death while in office.
- Secretary of Commerce under Hoover & Coolidge
- Advocate of the Trade Association movement
Reconstruction & Civil Rights Cases
Reconstruction & Civil Rights
- Court offered a narrow interpretation of the Reconstruction Amendments.
- Court reflected popular will.
- Traditional notion of federalism will serve as a counter revolutionary force.
Reconstruction Amendment Cases
13th Amendment 1865
- Abolished Slavery
14 Amendment 1868
- Established Citizenship & Protected certain rights of citizenship.
- US Born
15 Amendment 1870
- Voting Rights based on Race or Prev
World War I
History of Liberty in the United States
- Built into the Bill of Rights; the assumption of negative liberty, that
liberty needs to be protected from the government.
- Idea of liberty was strong based on property rights in the early 19th
- Social reformers in the early 20th century centralized in urban areas focused on
workers rights, conditions, wages etc.
- Strong sense that the government can solve problems.
- People need a more direct voice to representatives and governm
Brown v. Board Respones
Brown v. Board of Education, recap
- The creators of the 14th Amendment intended that it be
interpreted as separate but equal.
- Original Intent
- Argued the Amendment must be viewed in the light of current
- Rapid Growth of National Power
- Federal attempt to regulate morality in an effort to protect people with
the use of the new federal police powers.
- Lever Act,
- Committee on Public Information, CPI
- Federal Dr
Populism, Progressivism, & Socialism
- Created a political culture.
- Legitimizing the movement and giving it a brand.
- Encouraging participation among the community.
- Factors that led to the rise of Populism
- Crony Capitalism
The Beginning of American Imperialism
Spanish American War
Splendid Little War
- Disease kills more troops than combat
- Rough Riders, led by T.R., captured Kettle Hill in the battle of San Juan Hill.
- 1,000 U.S., 2,000 Spanish, 3,000 Cuban Deaths.