Fox Chapter 12 (plus references to chapters 5, 7 & 15)
How muscle works molecularly has been a real success story in cell-molecular biology.
Skeletal ("striated" = striped) muscle cell ("fiber" = cell) 10- 100 microns [micr
2. What is the region of the lung called where gas exchange occurs? Alveoli Nam
Skeletal muscle-innervated by somatic motor neurons.
Acetylcholine (AcH) is released
and delivered to individual cells at the motor end plate -neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
Muscles: striated and attached to bone by tendons
Exist in pairs, can only activel
What you need to know about the ear.
1. Waves moving (in liquids or air) have frequency and amplitude.
Wave length codes for pitch. Higher pitch means higher frequency (shorter wave
length). Lower pitch means lower frequency (longer wave length).
Exam 3 study guide part 1.
I. Blood Clotting:
1. List the components of blood
a. Plasma-what of plasma? is straw colored liquid consisting of H20 and dissolved solutes
Which of these plasma proteins play a role in clotting? Clotting factors, albumins, glo
Review of Kidney:
1a. Know the route of blood through the Kidney.
Afferent arterioles, Glomerulus, Efferent arterioles, Peritubular capillaries, Vasa recta.
2a. What is the functional unit of the kidney? Nephron
2b. Know the order of filtrate flow through
Fox Chapter 9 (plus selections from Chapters 7, 8, 14 & 20)
It's a motor system
motor system for smooth muscle and glands
contrasted with somatic system innervating striated (skeletal) muscle
Autonomic has preganglionic a
Membrane lipids are composed of:
(1) Phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (lecithin)
I did some research on the phospholipids of the Drosophila head. Using radioactively lbeled
phosphate, many different phospholipids are visuali
Fox Chapter 6 and 7. Note that web material is especially important for this lecture
TRANSPARENCY (from intro book)
Connections, from other neurons, created graded electrical potentials at synapses, on dendrites
Synapses and transmitters
Fox, part of chapter 7 (part of chapter 12) (a figure from chapter 8)
Cell theory (cells being separated) implies that cells must communicate with each other through
an extracellular connections and most comm
Vesicles are interesting.
Transmitter is very concentrated, there are pumps to move transmitter "up hill" (against
gradient) into vesicle.
Sometimes part of transmitter synthesis is in vesicle.
Ca2+ in through volta
Reading assignment: Chapter 1 and other material specifically referenced
What is life?
(Also TRANSPARENCY from an intro text)
showing a cell
If this were the first lecture for introductory biology, we would ask, "What is uniq
Myelin speeds up the action potential
Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of myelin.
Membrane is wrapped around and cytoplasm is squeezed out, leaving only alternating bands of
electron density and lucency at high magnification.
Each layer of
Fox, Chapter 6, plus some references back to earlier and later chapters and to Freeman
There's enough lipid to make two layers
shows how red blood cells react to hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic solutions.
Get a good source of membra
Derivation of Nernst potential
Fig. 6.26, Fox (again)
Because of the potassium gradient there is a resting potential of about -65-70 mV
Assume two compartments in communication
(ions like K+ or Na+ dissolved in each)
Free energy (of each system) = RT
Fox, Chapter 7 (mostly)
Spike propagates nondecrimentally long distances
Most important information - axon is relatively long.
There are various shapes.
Top - this looks likes the input to the spinal, the cell is in
Homeostasis: the thermostat
A fundamental example is the thermostat.
Negative feedback is sometimes referred to as a servo mechanism.
The thermostat works by negative feedback.
In house, "effector" would be furnace heat
Heat (energy) is what changes tempe
(shown before in the membrane lecture)
Nicotinic ACh receptor
Receptors in this figure are channels and this kind of transmission is called ionotropic.
For Acetylcholine (cholinergic transmission), the nicotinic receptor is an exam