The force of contraction in the cardiac muscle cells is
directly related to the concentration of free
(unbound) cytosolic calcium.
The inotropic agents increase the contractility of the
heart by directly and indirectly altering the mechani
The heart contains specialized cells that exhibit
. That is, they intrinsically generate rhythmic
action potentials in the absence of external stimuli. These pacemaker cells differ from other
myocardial cells in showing a slow, spontaneous depolarization
most of calcium in bone, constant removal and dissolution of minerals and rebuilding whats
already in existence
Blood stream only small amount of calcium bw 4-5 mEq of calcium per liter- important
bc it is the functional part of the calcium, mat
Chapter 17 Review Questions
Diuretic that is used for patients with renal failure (GFR> 30ml/min/m2)
Thiazide Diuretics can be combined with other class drugs except:
Thiazide Diuretics can induce what side effects:
Aortic Valve Surgery
3. LV Outflow Obstruction
Infants with CHF
Children: Relieve symptoms, prevent sudden death
o Gradient >50mmHg when cardiac output is
o Valve area index <0.5 cm2/m2
Underdevelopment of c
A. Development of the Primitive
At the beginning of the 4th week paired
form from the splanchnic
mesoderm on wither side of the foregut
As the lateral borders of the foregut fold
and fuse in the midline, a single
Atrial Septal Defects
o Ostium Secundum (80%)
o Ostium Primum
o Sinus Venosus
o Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
o Most common type of ASD
o Occurs in the center of the septum between the right and left
o Variant of this type is P
1. Effects of hypothermia
a. Blood flow and O2 delivery
2. Cold blooded: temperature fluctuations with environment changes. Modify
behavior and location to adapt
3. Warm blooded: body tempe
Renal cell cancers are typically treated with both local and systemic therapies.
Local therapies consist of surgery to remove the entire affected kidney and any surrounding
- These include:
- Nephrectomy: which is the removal of the kidney
BIO 211: Chapter 1 - Basics of Anatomy: Work Sheet
Define the following:
List the various divisions of Anatomy:
List the various divisions of Physiology:
How are anatomy and Physiology interrelated?
J.DHILLON: BIO 211
Based on t
Practice questions for the basics of Anatomy and Physiology
1. What subdiscipline of anatomy may explore how the lower limb differs between humans and chimpanzees?
2. What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
3. Which organ system is respon
Chapter 2 Worksheet
Fill in the blanks:
of a proton or
located in th
Action Potential Worksheet
Alteration of Resting Membrane Potential
1. Resting membrane potential (RMP) is the potential difference that exists across a membrane of an
unstimulated cell (cell at rest). Using the information the figure above, find out the
Chapter 12 Worksheet
What are the functions of the nervous system?
Draw a flow chart to show the structural organization of the nervous system.
Structural Organization of the Nervous System
Draw a flow chart to show the functional organizat
movement of water
from high to low
Endocytosis into the cell
directly from ATP
Membrane Transport Worksheet
Exocytosis out of the cell
directly from ATP
Chapter 17 Worksheet
What are the main differences between the endocrine and the nervous system?
What are the three kinds of stimuli that control hormone secretion?
List the different types of lipid soluble and water soluble hormones with examples of each
Chapter 13 Worksheet
Label the regions of the brain:
Name the cerebral White matter tracts:
What is Cerebral lateralization?
Fill in the primary functions of the regions of the brain listed below:
Region/sub-region of the brain
Practice Questions for Chapter 3: Cellular Respiration
Answer the following questions:
1. A sodium ion moving down its concentration gradient is an example of what kind of energy?
2. Muscle contraction is an example of what kind of energy?
3. Is the forma
Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Practice Questions
1. What are the two main divisions of the nervous system and what are they comprised of?
2. What are the general characteristics of neurons?
3. What are the different types (functionally) of neurons present in
Chapter 14 Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
1. Where are the epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces located? Which one contains CSF?
2. Draw a cross section of the spinal cord with a pair of spinal nerves exiting from the spinal cord and
label all parts
Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System
1. List three differences between Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.
2. What are the anatomic features that distinguish the motor neurons in the SNS and the ANS?
3. The parasympathetic division is responsible for wh
Chapter 14 Worksheet
Label structures belonging to the PNS in the following diagrams:
Label the following structures:
How many spinal nerves are present in the human body and how are they grouped?
What are ascending and descending tracts? Give three nam
Chapter 13 Brain and Cranial Nerves
1. Draw a concept map/flow-chart showing all the divisions/regions including sub-divisions/sub-regions of the
2. Where is gray matter located within the cerebrum? Within the spinal cord?
3. What is the function o
Practice Questions for Chapter 2
Answer the following:
1. What is the number of covalent bonds that an atom of nitrogen can form within a molecule?
2. What is the octet rule?
3. Why is water neutral?
4. What type of substances release H+ when added to wat