9/27/2010
The STRONG FORCE
Nucleons are bound together through the STRONG FORCE which
is not fully known
However from experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon scattering
and from studies of the deuteron (the simplest nucleus which
and from studies of the d
9/23/2010
Binding Energy
Semi-empirical Formula
Binding Energy
The total energy (mass) of a nucleus is less than the combined
energy of the separated nucleons
This difference in energy is called the binding energy of the
nucleus
It can be thought of as
10/16/2010
Scintillation Detectors
A NaI crystal coupled to a photomultiplier
tube.
A number of identical
photomultiplier tubes
from a Gamma Camera.
In a SCINTILLATOR DETECTOR, the energy of an
SCINTILLATOR DETECTOR th
incoming radiation/particle is trans
12/7/2010
Scattering and Nuclear
Reactions
Besides the spontaneous emission processes (natural radioactivity)
nuclear decays can also been induce by bombarding a given
nucleus with a particle of large kinetic energy.
These bombardments can be roughly divi
Matter waves
Text: Chapter 6
Louis de Broglie
1892-1987
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1929
"for his discovery of the
wave nature of electrons"
Quantization: Standing Waves
De Broglie Waves
Electron is somehow a wave
Nobel Prize
1929
Diffraction?
Braggs la
The Schrdinger Equation
in One Dimension
Text: Chapter 7
Erwin Schrdinger
Nobel Prize, 1933"for the
discovery of new productive
forms of atomic theory,
together with Paul Dirac
The Time-Dependent Schrodinger
Equation
Eq. 7.107
The Free Particle
The Tim
2008 Nature Publishing Group http:/www.nature.com/natureneuroscience
ARTICLES
Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition
Joshua M Susskind1, Daniel H Lee1, Andree Cusi1, Roman Feiman1, Wojtek Grabski1 & Adam K Anderson1,2
It has been proposed that faci
2008 Nature Publishing Group http:/www.nature.com/natureneuroscience
B R I E F C O M M U N I C AT I O N S
Serotonergic transcriptional
programming determines
maternal behavior and
offspring survival
Jessica K Lerch-Haner1, Dargan Frierson2, LaTasha K Cra
2008 Nature Publishing Group http:/www.nature.com/natureneuroscience
ARTICLES
Speech motor learning in profoundly deaf adults
Sazzad M Nasir1 & David J Ostry1,2
Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputsauditi
Time- Dependent Quantum States
Copenhagen Interpretation of Wave
Function
When a measurement is done the wave
function collapses into a state corresponding
to a measured value (say, energy, position,
momentum, etc)
A big question: why?
Quantum suicide a
What Every Computer Scientist
Floating-Point Arithmetic
Should
Know About
DAVID GOLDBERG
Xerox
Palo
Alto
Research
Center,
3333 Coyote Hill
Road,
Palo
Alto,
CalLfornLa
94304
Floating-point
arithmetic
is considered an esotoric subject by many people. This i
The Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Department of Physics
Ryerson University
October 4, 2013
1
Introduction
Thermal radiation is typically considered the starting point in many texts for discussions
of old quantum theory and the progression towards modern quantum me
Diffraction
Text:Chapters11and12
Whatisdiffraction?
Waves go around the corner
DiffractionofLight
DiffractionofSound
Diffraction
Shadowofa
Lightdoesnotalways
hand
illuminated
travelinastraight
bya
line.
HeliumNeon
laser
Ittendstobend
aroundobjects.This
te
8 Genre Research in Workplace and
Professional Contexts
In addition to the growing body of empirical research on genre in
academic contexts is a wide range of research studies that investigate
professional and workplace genres. Parallel to the interest (d
Coherence
Text: Chapter 9
Fourier Analysis
Fourier Transform of the finite
harmonic wave
Temporal Coherence and Line Width
Correlation Function
Beam-Split Correlation Function
Beam-Split Correlation Function
Coherence and Fringe Visibility
Temporal vs Spa
SUPERPOSITION of WAVES
Text: Chapter 6
Complex Form
Geometry
Trigonometry
Two Wave Superposition: Summary
Interference of Light
Text: Chapter 7
Two-Beam Interference
For two Plane Waves
I out
I1 I 2
1
I1 I 2
2 I1 I 2 cos
2 I1 I 2 cos(
t kz
1
t kz
2
1
1
2
Near-Infrared
Spectro-Imaging of
Tissue
(NIRSI)
Optical Spectroscopy
Beers law:
a
i
ci
i
NIRSI
Light Propagation in Tissues
Absorption
~0.1 cm-1
a
Scattering
s ~ 10 cm-1
NIRSI
Boltzmann Transport
Equation
1 L( r , , t )
L( r , , t ) ( a
) L( r , , t )
s
v
Production of Polarized Light
Text: Chapter 15
z
EM Wave
E and also perpendicular
Wave front
x
y
States of polarization
y
E-field
variation over
time (and
space)
a
E-field variation
over time (and
space)
y
x
x
kz-wt = 90
E-field variation
over time (and
s
Wave Math
Maxwell Equations and Wave Equation
1 2E
2
E
2
2
c
t
1 2B
2
B
2
2
ct
The one-dimensional wave
equation
2
f
2
x
1
2
v
2
f
t
2
0
One-Dimensional Wave Equation
2
f
x2
1
v2
2
f
t
2
0
Plane Waves
Laser beams vs. Plane waves
A plane wave has flat wa
Radiometry
Solid Angle
The solid angle, , is the angle in threedimensional space that an object subtends at
a point. It is a measure of how big that object
appears to an observer looking from that
point.
Steradian
The steradian (symbol: sr) is the SI un
9/23/2010
REVIEW OF Quantum
Mechanics
Matter Waves
The interpretation of matter waves, which evolved
from classical ideas, was first suggested by Max Born
in 1928
Similarly to the description of classical waves by a
function that varies with time and pos
Quantum Physics I
A historic introduction
Necessary Background
Calculus: limits, Integration and differentiation
Probability
Differential equations
Complex numbers and functions
Newtonian Mechanics
Waves
Electromagnetism
Significance of Q Physics: Lasers
Photoelectric Effect
Apparatus
Effect of Light Irradiance
Effect of Light Frequency
Albert Einstein
1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his services to Theoretical
Physics, and especially for his
discovery of the law of the
photoelectric effect"
Einsteins
Rutherford (planetary) model of atom
Atomic Spectra
Niels Bohr
1885-1962
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
"for his services in the investigation of the
structure of atoms and of the radiation
emanating from them"
Bohr Postulates
Stationary states: L = n
DE
Electron Spin
Quantum Magnets
Text: Chapter 9
Quantum Properties of Angular
Momentum
Spin Angular Momentum
Electron Spin
Spins of other particles
Magnetic Moments
Quantum Magnetic Moments
The Zeeman Effect
ml -
Magnetic Quantum
Number
Hydrogen radiation a
Planks Theory of Thermal
Radiation Spectrum
Energy Quantization of
Electromagnetic Field Oscillators
Origins of Quantum Physics
Black Body
Radiation
Radiation of
atoms
Quantization
of the energy
of field oscillators
Quantization
of the atomic
energy level