Research Design
by Jack Barry
A Good 'causal' Research Design must.
1. Establishes a relationship between variables.
2. Demonstrates that the results are true in
general and not only in one case
3. Reveal whether one phenomenon
precedes another in time.
4

Variables
Measurement,
Reliability and
Validity.
Jack Barry
What level of measurement is this?
1. Nominal.why?
Source: Pollock textbook, p-29.
Measurement
2. Ordinal-level variable
'Support for school prayer'
Options to make a numerical ranking?
3. Interv

Relationships, variables and
testing hypotheses
By Jack Barry
Linear relationship: a change in the
independent variables is associated with a
consistent change in the dependent
variables
Causal relationship: When the change in
the independent variable is

The building blocks of
empirical methods: hypotheses,
quantitative concepts, and an
introduction to variables.
By Jack Barry
Specifying an Explanation
A variable is a concept with variation.
A concept with no variation is a.?
Variation is the key to data

Statistical Inference: Statistical
Significance
By Jack Barry
What is a significance
test?
A
test for statistically testing a
hypothesis by comparing the
data to values predicted by
the hypothesis.
Statistically
Significant?
Elements of a Significance
Tes

Making Empirical Observation:
Direct and Indirect Observation
By Jack Barry
Three major types of data:
1. Interview data
2. Documents, written record (e.g.
Video)
3. Direct observation
Observation
Observation is generally an example of
primary data.
Secon

Beginning Logic of Statistics:
Making Sense of Data
Descriptive Statistics: Probability
Distributions, Variance, Standard
Deviations
Central Tendency
Mode, Median and.
Mean
Describes the average value
Mean = (Y)/N
Mean is not resistant to outliers
O