Muscles and movement
11.2.1 State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human
Bones function as levers, ligaments stabilize the skeleton, tendons attach muscle to
bone, nerves cause muscle movement, and muscles move the b
3.3.1 Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and
A DNA nucleotide consists of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four
different nitrogen based ring structures.
State the names
Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.
Large food molecules need to be digested because they are large polymers that are
insoluble. It is essential that they be digested into smaller particles that are soluble so
Outline the cell theory.
Note: Include the following.
Living organisms are composed of cells.
Cells are the smallest unit of life.
Cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cell theory states that cells are the smallest structure that is capab
Define enzyme and active site.
An enzyme is a globular protein which is a catalyst. Meaning that it speeds up the rate
of biological reactions. Enzymes are not changed or used up by the reaction and are
specific to their substrate. An active
Defence against infectious disease
Note: Pathogen: an organism or virus that causes a disease.
A pathogen is any organism or virus that is capable of causing a disease.
Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria bu
Protein Synthesis (Transcription and translation)
Compare the structure of RNA and DNA.
Note: Limit this to the names of sugars, bases and the number of strands
DNA is a deoxyribonucleic acid while RNA is a ribonucleic acid. In DNA the C2 carries no
7.5.1 Explain the four levels of protein structure, indicating the significance of each
Note: Quaternary structure may involve the binding of a prosthetic group to form
a conjugated protein.
The primary structure of a protein disp
Nerves, hormones and homeostasis
6.5.1 State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and
peripheral nerves, and is composed of cells called neurons that can carry
rapid electrical impulses.
The nervous system consists of the c
Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes.
Note: The diagram should show the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol,
glycoproteins, and integral and peripheral proteins. Use the term plasma
membrane, not cell surface membrane,