changes were instituted after the intervention
by the Berkeley president, an indication that
the story pressed against key ideological
boundaries. MEDIA AND SOCIAL CONTROL As
Stuart Hall indicated, it is the media's ability to
"define" the situation that
Psychology, 47, 728-731. Pepitone, A. (1976).
Toward a normative and comparative
biocultural social psychology. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 641-653.
Sampson, E. E. (1977). Psychology and the
American ideal. Journal of Personality and
accuracy in magazine science reporting.
Journalism Quarterly, 55, 345-346. Boy sees dad
die at mom's grave. (May 14, 1993). Columbus
Dispatch, p. 34. Bozell, L. B., III, & Baker, B. H.
(1990). And that's the way it is(n't): A reference
guide to media bias
news distorts events. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Becker, L., McCombs, M., & McLeod, J. (1975).
The development of political cognitions. In S.
Chaffee (Ed.), Political communication: Issues
and strategies for research. Beverly Hills, CA:
Sage. Berelson, B. (
include exposure as intervening variables.
Agenda setting can be studied in four basic
ways (McCombs & Gilbert, 1986). The social
system level studies, including the original
(McCombs & Shaw, 1972), fall within domain C.
The individual-level studies would
decisions on economic concerns. Top
management will not normally intervene
against professional routines unless they
threaten the larger organization's goals. As the
organization's resources become more limited,
routines will be followed that enable the
placement, and portrayal, based on the
routines and organizational logic discussed in
earlier chapters. Deviance in the News
Shoemaker and her colleagues have done
extensive analysis of the way in which the
media communicate deviance. She found, for
media. Variations in ideology can be introduced
through the "interest" and "informal" funding
patterns, but these are relatively insignificant in
challenging the ruling ideas. These media make
up a small percentage of the available content,
and their mess
covering the task. Journalists have substantial
leeway in the selection of words and visuals to
include in a story, and therefore their personal
attitudes may translate into selections that
undermine the political legitimacy of the
covered person or event
Monthly Review contribution, the only mention
in the 27 pages.) The Paradigm, Repair, and
Hegemony This case helps us understand how
the news paradigm upholds hegemonic
boundaries. By crossing the lines of hegemonic
acceptability, the MacDougall case requ
effects. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1955). Personal
influence: The part played by people in the flow
of mass communication. Glencoe, IL: Free
Press. Kidder, L. H., & Judd, C. M. (1986).
Research methods in social rel
(Pentagon papers, Watergate), Page 224. 9 /
THE INFLUENCE OF IDEOLOGY but only as a
corrective action in the best long-term interests
of preserving the capitalist system. Under this
instrumental approach, media do have a degree
of relative autonomy, which
coverage of causes of death. Journalism
Quarterly, 56, 837-843, 849. Cook, T. E. (1989).
Making laws and making news: Media
strategies in the US. House of Representatives.
Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Page
267 Daley, P., & O'Neill, D. (1991). "S
THEORY OF NEWS CONTENT Although
"official" sources (e.g., government officials or
police) dominate nearly all news content, the
percentage of official sources will be higher in
stories about issues than in those about events.
Issues are more likely than e
By taking decisional "events," pluralists have
guaranteed diversity by focusing only on those
issues on which elites agree. Lukes (1974)
argues that the most effective power prevents
conflict from arising in the first place. This,
according to Hall (1982)
gave little coverage to the anarchists' own
stated beliefs, but considerable attention to
official and police statements, and comments
bystanders. Official statements emphasized the
deviance of the anarchists, who contrasted
themselves to an apathetic soc
direct communication of a government official
to a (generally high-level) manager of a media
organization. The more sources and interest
groups criticize the mass media, the more the
government will try to control the media. The
characteristics of the com
developed as a way of making the media
worker's job more efficient. The media operate
under certain expectations about the nature of
content from the audience and work under
constraints imposed by sources. The ultimate
power in a media organization comes
the same news values may apply for domestic
and foreign news coverage, measures of
political, economic, and cultural significance
affect what is considered important, one of the
main criteria for establishing newsworthiness.
Journalists will not use obje
balance are sought: "This is the region of
electoral contests and legislative debates, of
issues recognized as such by the major
established actors of the American political
process" (p. 116). At the core is the sphere of
consensus, the "motherhood and ap
M. (1950). The "gatekeeper": A case study in
the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27,
383-390. CHAPTER 2 Aronson, E., & Mills, J.
(1959). The effect of severity of initiation on
liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 59, 17
dissension; disparagement by undercounting
the students' numbers and minimizing their
effectiveness; reliance on officials; emphasis on
the presence of Communists, Vietcong flags,
and violence; and considerable attention given
to right-wing opposition. Me
propositionsstatements that describe the
current state of media content. Although the
majority of the hypotheses are derived from
empirical research, we also provide some that
have been inferred from our knowledge of the
topic. The following list of assum
that shaped it. For example, the language used
may tell us something about the writer's
attitudes, and the editor's selection of stories
tells us something about his or her priorities.
The general forces operating to shape news
content also shape enterta
Brendlinger, 1988). Media Techniques of
Communicating Deviance. As agents of social
control, the media must first identify threats to
the status quo. As suggested by the Shoemaker
research, the media do not screen out deviant
ideas but rather portray them
flow of information. New York: Harper and
Brothers. Recently reprinted (1987) by
Transaction Books, New Brunswick, NJ. Delia, J.
G. (1987). History of communication research.
In C. Berger & S. Chaffee (Eds.), Handbook of
communication science (pp. 20-98).
(Ed.), (1928). An uncertainty season: Reporting
in the postprimary period. New York: Freedom
Forum Media Studies Center. FitzSimon, M.
(Ed.). (1993). The media and foreign policy in
the post-cold war world, New York: Freedom
Forum Media Studies Center. Fr
news and features. Not only can owners hire
and fire editors, columnists, and reporters
according to their stated political beliefs, but
they can also cause subtle "slants" in coverage
as the employees try to anticipate what the
owner wants. The further t
ramifications. Upper-level media
management personnel whose background is
on the business side of the organization are
more likely to make decisions based on
economics rather than on professional
considerations. Their backgrounds have
sensitized them to e
the power relations of the general society. Page
254. 11 / BUILDING A THEORY OF NEWS
CONTENT HYPOTHESES ABOUT INFLUENCES ON
MEDIA CONTENT Individual Media Workers
Media workers who have a "communication"
college degree produce content with different