PHIL 0082 Short Writing Assignment #1
(1) Leibniz Law is widely used to show whether two objects are identical or not. (2) If two
objects, A and B, have a certain property in common, then we can say that A is identical to B,
according to the Leibniz Law.
Short Writing Assignment #2
(1) Type Identity Theory states that each mental state can be categorized into a
certain type, and thus every type of mental state is identical with some type of brain
state. (2) Take humans pain state as an example, Type Ident
Materialism II: Functionalism
The Multiple Realizability Argument
Suppose in humans pain is correlated with C-fiber stimulations. Type Identity theory might say:
To be in a pain-state just is to be in a state where one's C
"Philosophy: the ungainly attempt to tackle questions that come naturally to children,
using methods that come naturally to lawyers."
Argument: a reasoned defense
Materialism III: Functionalism (ct'd)
"Achilles: Well this isn't just a bookit's a book plus a whole process. How does a
book plus a process feel?
Tortoise: How should I know? But you can ask it that question yourself."
Materialism I: Identity Theory
"I am a brain Watson. The rest of me is mere appendix. Therefore it is the
brain I must consider."
Two connected outstanding issues for the Materialist:
(1) Why do Descartes'
with Selections from the Objections and Replies
TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY
L)niuersity of Reading
with an introductory
and a new introduction for this edition
Peter van Inwagen
A Mcrrrlrn rrl tlrc l,clncun llxrLr ( ir,rrrrp
resewed. Printed in the United States ofAmerica. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
Argument from Doubt
Premise 1: I cannot doubt the existence of my mind.
Premise 2: I can doubt the existence of my body.
Conclusion: My mind is not my body.
Argument from Introspection
Materialism and Dualism
Substances and Properties
Substances: (some features)
(A) Can exist on its own
(B) Can be the subject of modifications
Examples: Trees, cars, protons.
-Not every noun picks out a substan