EQUILIBRIUM LEVEL OF OUTPUT
EQUILIBRIUM LEVEL OF OUTPUT
The level of output in which planned or desired
purchases by consumers, businesses, governments
and foreigners equals actual aggregate output.
When the economy is in equilibrium, produc
Temperature of mixture (Degrees Celsius)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Volume of Base Added (mL)
5 mL addn
10 mL addn
15 mL addn
20 mL addn
25 mL addn
30 mL addn
35 mL addn
Run #1B 3M HCL +
Exam two practice questionsPlease note that there are not practice questions on all possible topics. Refer to the exam 2
guide to be sure you are preparing fully for the exam.
1. Gap junctions in heart muscle allow _(ions/proteins) to be shared
Natural Selection and Descent
You should be able to
Explain the basic concepts of Darwinian
Descent with modification
Use the examples discussed in class to explain:
How speciation is occurr
Welcome to Bio 150 2161
Dr. Laurel Roberts
230C Langley Hall
Rosemary and Peter Grant, Austin Tx, 2015
Modified Mastering Biology
What is Life?
R. Sinus is a type of bacteria with many phosphate groups on its outer capsid. If a virus
were to try and infect this bacteria, what types of amino acids would have to line the
outside of the virus?
ANSWER: C, Arginine would ha
Janie recently went vegetarian, so she started eating walnuts and peanut butter to
obtain a sufficient level of protein. However, Janie was still deficient in four amino
acids. Her doctor prescribed her four different pills, each pill being a different am
Which of the following is NOT a function of RNA?
a) Carrier of genetic information
b) Catalyzes chemical reactions
c) Able to replicate itself
e) All of the above are functions of RNA
ANSWER: E, all are functions of RNA. RNA has a very wide ran
Outside the Cell
Inside the Cell
The cells in your stomach maintain a pH of about 7 while the stomach itself
maintains a pH of 3. Therefore the cell is going to need to adjust itself to
accommodate to the different polarities. Identify what amino acids wo
1) Your body is making antibodies for a certain disease that has infiltrated your body. The
heavy chain on the antibody contains many glutamate amino acids while the light chain
contains many isoleucine amino acids. Which of the following m
7) During cellular respiration, a certain type of bacterium is able to use fluorine as the final
electron acceptor in the instead of oxygen. Which aspect of respiration will change?
A) Glucose will not have been broken down without oxygen
B) These organis
Which of the following are true of enzymes?
A) They change the G of the reaction
B) After a certain point the enzymes are used up in a certain reaction and your body must
C) The more substrates you add to your enzymes, the faster the
How many electrons can Q carry?
What happens to cytochrome C in complex IV?
Cytochrome C is oxidized and the electrons are given to oxygens to produce water.
What is the major purpose of the ETC?
To establish a proton gradient that will flow down its co
Describe the three ways that protists feed:
1) Ingesting packets of food
-via phagocytocis the protists will engulf the substance, pulling itself around the
food and decomposing it into smaller materials inside the protist.
-via cilia: Some protists will
Biology Chapter 1
Biology and the Tree of Life
Biological science: search for ideas and observation that unify our
understand of the diversity of life
1.1: What Does it Mean to Say that Something is Alive?
Organism: life form- made up of one or more cell
Biology Chapter 2
Water and Carbon: The Chemical Basis of Life
For Life to exist, spontaneous generation must have occurred at least once,
early in Earths history
Chemical evolution: leading scientific explanation for the origin of life
o Has a pattern c
Biology Chapter 4
Nucleic Acids and the RNA World
RNA world hypothesis: life began as a polymer of RNA (ribonucleic acid)
o Change errors in replication created variations that would undergo
4.1: What is a Nucleic Acid?
Nucleic acids: a
Double bond: share 2 e- in 2 orbitals
Rotation allows groups of atoms to change position while preserving the
usual bond angles around each atom.
Hydrogen bonds occur between water molecules, but not within them.
H bonds can form between N and H
O and N c
Biology Test 2: Inside the Cell
Cell theory: all organisms consist of cells and all cells are derived from
Cells are fundamental structure unit on life
First cells from hydrothermal vents
All cells have
Nucleic acids that s
Chapter 8: Energy and Enzymes: Metabolic Pathways
Cells are dynamic
Enzymes catalyze the synthesis of a complex array of macromolecules or
transport ions/molecules across the cell membrane
o Change in response to signals from other cells/the envi
Biology Chapter 3
Protein Structure and Function
Chemical reactions in the atmosphere and ocean of ancient Earth are thought
to have led to the formation of the first complex carbon containing
compounds (chemical evolution)
4 steps of the current theory
Test 3: Spontaneous Change
Chemical reaction: some energy in-completion on own
In spontaneous change
Free energy of system degreases (delta G <0), system becomes
Endergonic and E
Recitation Week 4 Worksheet
1. When is a phospholipid bilayer considered unsaturated?
When a large majority of the fatty acids have a single bond.
When a large majority of the fatty acids have a double bond.