The Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Transcaucasus
1. Describe two examples of how recent trade linkages with global commodity markets have created
or exacerbated local and regional environmental problems in Russia and Central Asia.
2. Why is fur
Rule is the prescribed guide for conduct or action
Law is a set of rules that attempts to guide human conduct and a set of formal, governmental sanctions that are applied when those are violated
What is the source of American Law?
The Law of Equity
(Dealing fairly and equally with all concerned <an equitable settlement of the dispute>)
It is a judge made Law and it is a supplement to Common Law and it is the second basic source
of the Law in the U.S. Rulings comes in the form of Ju
Courts use many strategies to determine whether the information has legitiamte public concernStories about public figures (both voluntary and involuntary) are normally considered of
legitimate public concern. When some private information is published or
Burden of Proof
1. There must be publicity to private facts about an individual
2. The revelation of this material must be offensive to reasonable person
3. The material is not of legitimate public concern
The word publicity in privacy law implies far mor
(Defenses and Damages)
Libel defenses are hundreds of years old, it gre from the common law, however today defenses
are contained in states statuets
Most plaintiffs lose the lawsuit because they cant meet with the burden of proof.
*The question the court will always ask is:
DID THE REPORTER MAKE A GOOD FAITH EFFORT TO DETERMINE THE TRUTH OR
FALSITY OF THE MATTER?
Courts will often scrutinize the source of the reporters story when deciding whether or not there
was negligence. eg. Vi
Sexual References- a statement that a woman is unchaste or is sleeping with a man to whom she
is not married is defeamtory- an allegation that a woman has been raped is equally libelous.
Ridicule- commenting on somebodys ability to conduct a business, har
STRATEGY LAWSUITS AGAINST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
*SLAPP -> In libel lawsuits,though the plaintiff does not win the case, 90% of these cases are in
favor of the defendant. But the plaintiff seeks to harras the defendent by making them
a) Go to the court and
Defamation is a communication that holds a person upto contempt, hatred, ridicule (mockery) or
Libel or defamtion is the pubication or broadcast of the statement that injures someones
reputation, or that lowers that person
Seditious Libel Law
These laws were enacted by British Government and were used to punish who criticized the British Government or the Crown and it did not mater whether the criticism was truthful or not. The
press suffered under licensing or prior restra