Kinetic Molecular Theory
Particles in an ideal gas
Have no volume.
Have elastic collisions.
Are in constant, random, straight-line motion.
Dont attract or repel each other.
Have an avg. KE directly related to Kelvin
Characteristics of Gases
Alkaline Earth Metals
All alkaline earth metals have 2 valence electrons
Alkaline earth metals are less reactive than alkali metals
Alkaline earth metals are not found pure in nature they are too
The word alkaline means basic
The stuff of the universe
Anything that has mass and takes up space
States of matter
Solid has definite shape and volume
Liquid has definite volume, changeable shape
Gas has changeable shape and volume
The capacity to do wo
splitting a nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei
chain reaction - self-propagating reaction
critical mass - mass required to sustain a chain reaction
combining of two nuclei to form one nucleus of larger
Types of Radiation
All Matter in universe is composed of Atoms
o Elements are composed of only 1 type of atom.
Atoms are mostly empty space.
o Atoms have Electrons which are very small and are
negatively charged and have a negligible mass.
o Electrons move in orbits aroun
Modern Atomic Theory
All matter is composed of atoms
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed in ordinary chemical
reactions. However, these changes CAN occur in nuclear reactions!
Atoms of an element have a characteristic average mass which i
Properties of Acids:
Produce H3O+ ions in water
Turns litmus from blue to red
Double Replacement with solid oxides
o turns rusting metals into salts
Double Replacement with hydroxides
o neutralizes bases
o always forms a salt and water
Factors Influencing Rate of Chemical Reactions
Temperature chemical reactions proceed quicker at higher temperatures
Particle size the smaller the particle the faster the chemical reaction
Concentration higher reacting particle concentrations produce f
Electron shells, or energy levels, surround the nucleus of an atom
Bonds are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level
Valence shell outermost energy level containing chemically active
Octet rule atoms react in
Building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl
Amino acid structure.
Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids
bound together with peptide bonds
Structural Levels of Proteins