Gods, Goddesses, and Rulers
The most important building in the city state
was the Ziggurat.
The Ziggurat was a massive stepped tower
with a temple in the top of it.
Priests and Priestesses: The Mesopotamian ziggurats were
not places for public worship or
Development of religious traditions
Polytheism was practiced by most
Monotheism was practiced by the
Origins of Judaism
Jerusalem Beliefs, traditions, and
customs of Judaism.
Belief in one God (monotheism)
Persians as rulers
Tolerance of conquered peoples
Development of imperial bureaucracy
Zoroastrianism as a religion
Mesopotamia means the land between the
The oldest civilization was found in this
region between the Tigris and Euphr
Cultural contributions and achievements
Scientific contributions and achievements
Expansion of geographic knowledge
The Rise of Islam
o Arose in the Arabian Peninsula a
After Muhammad took the city of Makkah he
cleansed the Kaaba of idols and dedicated it to
Allah, who he taught was the one true God.
All Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage
to Makkah known as the Hajj at least once in their
life if they
Importance of Religion
View of Afterlife
The Mesopotamians believed that they were
put on earth to do the work that the gods did
not want to do themselves.
Polytheistic they believed in many gods.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
The first great
The Arabian Peninsula became an important
center for trade. The city of Mecca became
rich from the caravan trade traffic which
passed through the area.
The domestication of the camel enabled
traffic to cross the deserts and as empires
grew up in t
River valley civilizations (about 3500 to 500
Egyptian civilizationNile River Valley and
Mesopotamian civilizationTigris and
Euphrates River Valleys (Southwest Asia)
These river valleys offered rich soils for
agriculture, and they ten
Origins of Islam
Muhammad, the Prophet
Mecca and Medina on the Arabian
Peninsula: Early Muslim cities
Spread of Islam
Across Asia and Africa, and into Spain
Geographic extent of first Muslim empire
Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam
Homo sapiens emerged in East Africa between
100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia,
Australia, and the Americas.
Early humans were hunters and gatherers
whose survival depended on the availability of
wild plants and